POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 16
AVODAH ZARAH 16 - dedicated by Reb Gedalya Weinberger of Brooklyn, N.Y. in
memory of his father, Reb Chaim Tzvi ben Reb Shlomo Weinberger. Reb Chaim
Tzvi, who miraculously survived the holocaust, raised his children with an
intense dedication to the Torah and Gedolei Torah.
1) SELLING WEAPONS TO NOCHRIM (cont.)
(a) (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): We may not sell to them masses of
2) SELLING WORK ANIMALS TO NOCHRIM
1. This is because they make weapons from it.
(b) Question: If so, we should not sell shovels or axes
(c) Answer (Rav Zvid): Rav Ada only forbids Indian iron,
which is exclusively for making weapons.
(d) Question: Why do we sell to them today?
(e) Answer (Rav Ashi): We sell to the Persions, for they
protect (the cities, thereby protecting) us.
(a) (Mishnah): Calves and colts...
3) SELLING CHAYOS TO NOCHRIM
(b) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah) We may sell a lame animal to a
Nochri, because it cannot heal.
1. Chachamim: But he will keep the animal to bear
children! (People will see a Yisrael's animal by a
Nochri, and come to sell healthy animals.)
(c) R. Yehudah holds that it will not allow a male to mate
2. R. Yehudah: It will never bear children.
(d) (Mishnah): Ben Beseira permits selling a horse.
(e) (Beraisa - Ben Beseira): A horse is permitted, because
its work (carrying people) is not a desecration of
Shabbos that people are killed for (we say that people
(f) Rebbi says, a horse is forbidden for two reasons: it is
like a weapon, and it is a work animal.
1. We understand how it is like a weapon - it kills
fallen soldiers with its forelegs.
(g) Question: Why is it considered a work animal?
(h) Answer (R. Yochanan): When it grows old, people make it
turn a millstone.
(i) (R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows Ben Beseira.
(j) Question: May one sell a fattened ox (R. Tam - an ox fit
to be fattened)?
1. This question is according to R. Yehudah and
(k) Answer (Rav Yehudah): Romi required Rebbi's house to give
them a fattened ox on every idolatrous festival. Rebbi
paid them 40,000 coins to allow him to give it the next
day instead; he paid them another 40,000 to allow him to
give it after it was slaughtered; he paid another 40,000
to exempt him from it entirely.
2. R. Yehudah permits selling a lame animal, for it
will never be fit to work, but a fattened ox will
become fit if left for a while!
3. Chachamim forbid selling a lame animal, for it was
not sold to be eaten (perhaps he will keep it to
bear children), but a fattened ox is to be eaten!
1. Suggestion: He paid to abolish the practice because
it is forbidden, lest the Nochri will keep the ox
for a while.
(l) Question: If a fattened ox is left for a while, will it
really become fit to work?
2. Question: If so, why did he pay to give the ox on
the next day instead?
3. Answer: You must say, he intended to abolish the
practice in stages.
(m) Answer (Rav Ashi): Yes! A fattener told me, if left for a
while, it will work twice as good as a normal ox.
(a) (Mishnah): We may not sell to Nochrim lions, bears or
anything that will cause damage to the public;
(b) We may not build with them buildings or scaffolds for
execution, courthouses (where they judge capital cases),
or stadiums (where people are thrown to (be gored by)
(c) One may build with them altars (they are not directly
used to serve idolatry) and bathhouses;
1. One may not help build the place where they put the
(d) (Gemara - Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda citing Rav): A large
Chayah has the same law as a small Behemah regarding
Pirkus (quivering after slaughter, i.e. if a dangerously
sick animal stuck out a limb but did not quiver after
slaughter, it is forbidden, as if it died before the
slaughter ended), but not regarding selling it to Nochrim
(rather, it is always forbidden);
(e) (Rav Chanan himself): It has the same law also regarding
selling it: it is permitted or forbidden according to
(f) Question (Mishnah): We may not sell to Nochrim lions,
bears or anything that will cause damage to the public.
1. Inference: (Tame) lions that do not damage may be
(g) Answer #1 (Rabah bar Ula): The Mishnah discusses a lame
lion; it is like R. Yehudah (who permits selling large
(h) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Lions do not work, all are
considered lame (Rashi - R. Yehudah permits tame lions;
Tosfos - even Chachamim permit them).
4) THE LAW OF "PIRKUS"
(i) Question (Beraisa): Just as we may not sell large Behemos
to Nochrim, we may not sell large Chayos, even where
small Behemos are permitted.
1. Rav Chanan is refuted.
(j) Question (Ravina): Our Mishnah says, we may not sell
lions, bears or anything that will cause damage to the
1. Inference: Large Chayos that do not damage are
(k) Answer #1 (Ravina): The Mishnah discusses a lame lion; it
is like R. Yehudah.
2. Contradiction (Beraisa): Just as we may not sell
large Behemos to Nochrim, we may not sell large
Chayos, even where small Behemos are permitted.
(l) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Lions do not work, all are
(m) Objection (Rav Nachman): Perhaps lions are not considered
large Chayos, rather small Chayos (i.e. there is no
question at all)!
(n) Question (against Rav Chanan - Rav Ashi - Mishnah): We
may not sell lions, bears or anything that will cause
damage to the public.
1. Inference #1: If they did not damage, they would be
(o) Question: What work do large Chayos do?
2. Inference #2: The Mishnah only listed lions and
bears, which do not work - but large Chayos that
work would be forbidden!
3. This refutes Rav Chanan (from the Mishnah itself).
(p) Answer (Abaye): Wild donkeys pull millstones.
(a) (Rav Yehudah): A large Chayah has the same law as a small
Behemah regarding Pirkus; I do not remember if I heard
this from Rav or from Shmuel.
5) WE MAY NOT BUILD THEM COURTS
(b) R. Chiya bar Ashi: Shmuel taught this.
(c) Rabah bar Yirmeyah: Rav taught this.
(d) Rav Asi: Rav Chama bar Gurya taught this in Rav's name.
(e) Conclusion: Rabah bar Yirmeyah heard this from Rav Chama
bar Gurya, who learned it from Rav.
(a) (Mishnah): We may not build...
(b) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): There are three types of Basilki
(buildings): of Nochri kings, bathhouses, and
(c) Version #1 (Rava): Only those of kings are forbidden
(they judge capital cases there).
(d) Version #2 (Rava): All of them are permitted.
(e) Question (Mishnah): We may not build with them
Basilkiyos, courthouses, stadiums, or scaffolds.
(f) Answer: It means, we may not build with them Basilkiyos
(buildings) *of* courthouses, stadiums, or scaffolds.
(g) (Beraisa): When R. Eliezer was seized (for teaching
Torah, they were going to force him to serve idolatry)
the officer asked him 'Why do you engage in such idle
1. R. Eliezer: The Judge (Hash-m) is correct.
2. The officer (he thought R. Eliezer referred to him):
Since you accepted my words, I swear, I will free