POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Avodah Zarah 20
1) GIFTS TO NOCHRIM
(a) Question: What is the source (that we may not sell
2) LOOKING AT WOMEN
(b) Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): (It is a decree on
account of) "V'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to Nochrim
Chaniyah (a place to stay) in Eretz Yisrael.
(c) Question: We learn a different law from "V'Lo Sechanem" -
do not give to them Chen (praise them)!
(d) Answer: If it only came to teach that, it should have
said 'Lo Sechunam';
1. Rather, it says "V'Lo Sechanem" to teach both.
(e) Question: But we must learn another law from "V'Lo
Sechanem" - do not give to them Chinam (a free gift)!
(f) Answer: If it only came to teach those two, it should
have said 'Lo Sechinam';
1. Rather, it says "V'Lo Sechanem" to teach all three
(g) Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to
1. Also, do not give them Chen; (praise them); also, do
not give them Chinam.
(h) Tana'im argue whether or not we may give a gift to them.
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir): "Do not eat any Neveilah; to a
Ger (Toshav, i.e. a Ben No'ach who accepted to guard
his seven Mitzvos)...Titenenah va'Achalah O Machor
l'Nochri" - this only permits giving it (as a gift)
to a Ger (Toshav), or selling it to a Nochri;
(i) Question: Why does R. Yehudah argue with R. Meir?
i. Question: What is the source that one may sell
it to a Ger?
2. R. Yehudah only permits what the Torah explicitly
says: giving it to a Ger or selling it to a Nochri.
ii. Answer: "La'Ger...Titenenah va'Achalah O
iii. Question: What is the source that one may give
it to a Nochri?
iv. Answer: "Titenenah va'Achalah O Machor
v. Conclusion: One may give or sell it to a Ger or
(j) Answer: If the Torah meant like R. Meir says, it should
not have said "O";
1. Since it says "O", this teaches that we must do one
of the two things said.
2. R. Meir argues: "O" teaches that it is better to
give it to a Ger than to sell it to a Nochri.
3. R. Yehudah says, we already know this, because we
are commanded to help support Gerim, but not
(a) (Beraisa): Also: "V'Lo Sechanem" - do not give to them
(b) This supports Rav.
1. (Rav): It is forbidden to say 'This Nochri is so
(c) Answer: Rav admits that one may praise Hash-m for
creating beautiful things.
2. Question (Beraisa): R. Gamliel was in Har ha'Bayis,
and he saw a beautiful Nochris; he said "Mah Rabu
3. When Turnusrufus' wife tried to seduce R. Akiva, he
spit, laughed and cried:
i. He spit, because she was formed from a putrid
drop (of semen);
ii. He laughed, because he saw (through Divine
inspiration) that she would later convert and
iii. He cried on account of her beauty, which would
ultimately go to the grave.
1. One who sees beautiful creations should say 'Blessed
is He who created such things in His world'.
(d) Question: It is forbidden to look at women!
1. (Beraisa): "V'Nishmarta mi'Kol Davar Ra" - one may
not look at a beautiful woman, even if she is
single, or at a married woman, even if she is ugly;
3) SELLING ON CONDITION TO DETACH
2. One may not look at a woman's colored clothing, nor
at animals or birds mating, even if they fill his
field of vision, like the angel of death;
(e) Answer: R. Gamliel inadvertently saw the woman when he
turned a corner, he did not know in advance to close his
i. The angel of death is full of eyes; when a sick
person is about to die, the angel of death
stands over him, with a drop of poison on his
ii. When the person sees him, he is seized with
fear, his mouth opens, and the drop enters;
iii. The drop kills him, makes him decay, and makes
his face turn green.
(f) (Beraisa): One may not look at a woman's colored
(g) (Rav Yehudah): It is forbidden even if they are on the
(h) (Rav Papa): It is forbidden only if he knows whose
clothing it is.
(i) Support (Rava): The Beraisa says he may not look at *a
woman's* colored clothing; it does not say, 'at (women's)
(j) (Rav Chisda): It is forbidden only if she already wore
the clothing, not if it is new;
1. If not, it would be forbidden to give new clothing
to a professional (launderer) to fix it, for he will
look at it!
(k) (Beraisa): The drop kills him...
2. Objection: But Rav Yehudah taught, an animal breeder
may himself insert the male's Ever into the female,
and we said that one may not look at animals mating!
i. You must say, someone involved in his
profession is not aroused to improper thoughts
- this could also explain why we may give
clothing to a professional!
(l) Suggestion: This contradicts Shmuel's father!
1. (Shmuel's father): The angel of death told me that
he would prefer to uncover the neck (where he
slaughters a sick person), as one does with an
animal; he refrains on account of the honor of
(m) Answer: Perhaps the drop cuts the signs of slaughter
(foodpipe and windpipe).
(n) (Beraisa): The drop makes him decay...
(o) This supports R. Chanina bar Kahana.
1. (R. Chanina bar Kahana): To prevent a corpse from
decaying, one should move him so the mouth faces
down (the drop will drip out).
(p) (Beraisa): "V'Nishmarta mi'Kol Davar Ra" - one may not
think (of women) during the day, for this may cause a
seminal emission an night.
(q) (Beraisa - R. Pinchas ben Ya'ir): One can climb in levels
of serving Hash-m as follows: Torah leads to carefulness;
carefulness leads to zealousness, which leads to
cleanliness (from sin), then to separation (from what is
permitted, to be stringent), then to purity (of deeds),
then to Kedushah, then to humility, then to fear of sin,
then to Chasidus (going beyond the letter of the law),
then to Divine inspiration, and this leads to revival of
1. Chasidus is the highest level - "Az Dibarta v'Chazon
(r) This is unlike R. Yehoshua ben Levi.
1. (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Humility is the highest
level - "Ru'ach Hash-m...Levaser Anavim";
2. Only the humble will receive these tidings, not
(a) (Mishnah): We do not sell to Nochrim...
(b) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell them a tree on
condition to cut it, and he must cut it;
(c) R. Meir says, we may only sell them a cut tree.
(d) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell them fodder, or
standing crop on condition to cut it, and he must cut it
(in the Rif's text, fodder comes after standing crop;
this fits better with the coming Gemara (f:1-2));
(e) R. Meir says, we may only sell them what is already cut.
(f) They must argue in all three cases
1. If they only argued regarding a tree, one might have
thought that only there R. Meir forbids - we are
concerned that he will delay cutting it, for there
is no loss;
(g) Question: May we sell an animal (which is usually bought
for work) on condition to slaughter it immediately?
i. But regarding standing crop, he will not delay
cutting it, lest he suffer a loss, R. Meir
2. If they only argued regarding a tree or standing
crop, one might have thought that only there R.
Yehudah permits - we are not concerned that he will
delay, for there is no visible gain;
i. But regarding fodder, we suspect that he will
delay, for there is a visible gain, R. Yehudah
3. If they only argued regarding fodder, one might have
thought that only there R. Meir forbids, lest he
will delay, for there is a visible gain;
i. But regarding the others, R. Meir would also
1. Perhaps R. Yehudah only permits regarding things
attached (to the land) - since they are on the
Yisrael's land, he can ensure that the Nochri will
not delay, but if we sell an animal, the Nochri can
delay as long as he wants!
(h) Answer (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We may sell them an animal
on condition to slaughter it, and he must slaughter it;
(i) R. Meir says, we may only sell them a slaughtered animal.