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Avodah Zarah 28

AVODAH ZARAH 28 (8 Nisan) - dedicated by Dovid and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva, l'Iluy Nishmas his mother, Mrs. Seren Rubner. May the light of the Torah shine in their home and the homes of their children, bringing them joy and success in all their endeavors!


(a) Version #1 (R. Yochanan): Any wound for which we may desecrate Shabbos (because there is mortal danger), a Nochri may not heal it.
(b) Version #2 (R. Yochanan): A Nochri may not heal any internal wound.
(c) Question: What is the difference between the two versions?
(d) Answer #1: A wound on the back of the hand or foot.
1. (Rav Ada bar Masnah): A wound on the back of the hand or foot is *like* an internal wound, one may desecrate Shabbos for it (nevertheless, it is not internal, Rabah bar bar Chanah permits a Nochri to cure it).
(e) (Rav Zutra bar Tuvya): We may desecrate Shabbos for any wound for which we must estimate (whether or not the person will live).
(f) (R. Shemen bar Aba): A hot fever is like an internal wound, one may desecrate Shabbos for it.
(g) Question: What is considered an internal wound?
(h) Answer (R. Ami): From the lips and inside.
(a) Question (R. Elazar): What is the law of a wound on the Kachi (Rashi - gums; Tosfos - wide teeth) or (Tosfos - other) teeth?
1. Since they are hard, this is like an external wound;
2. Or, since they are internal, is it considered an internal wound?
(b) Answer #1 (Abaye - Mishnah): If one's teeth hurt, he may not Yigma (Abaye explains, put in his mouth and spit out; Rava - swallow) vinegar (on Shabbos).
1. Inference: If they hurt a lot, this is permitted (because it is considered an internal wound)!
(c) Rejection: Perhaps the Tana taught 'hurt', and this includes a great pain.
(d) Answer #2: R. Yochanan contracted Tzafdina (a tooth disease); he went to a Nochris to cure it, on Thursday and Friday.
1. R. Yochanan: What should I do tomorrow (I must teach on Shabbos, I cannot come)!
2. The Nochris: You need not do anything.
3. R. Yochanan: What if it hurts, and I must cure it?
4. The Nochris would not tell him until he swore not to reveal it; he swore 'To the G-d of Yisrael, I will not reveal it'. She told him; he taught it to the Talmidim.
5. Question: But he swore not to reveal it!
6. Answer: He swore not to reveal it *to* the G-d of Yisrael, he never swore not to reveal it to Yisrael.
7. Question: (She did not realize this,) this was Chilul Hash-m!
8. Answer: (Right) after she told him, he explained his oath to her.
9. Conclusion: Since R. Yochanan would use the cure on Shabbos, it must be that it is considered an internal wound.
(e) Rejection (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Tzafdina is an exception, it begins in the mouth but spreads to the intestines.
(f) Question: What are its symptoms?
(g) Answer: If one puts something on the Kachi, the teeth bleed.
1. It comes from eating cold wheat products, hot barley products, or leftover Kisa d'Harsena (fish fried in its own oil with flour).
(h) Question: What cure did she give?
(i) Answer #1 (Rav Acha brei d.Rava): Water of sourdough, olive oil, and salt.
(j) Answer #2 (Mar bar Rav Ashi): She melted fat of a goose, and applied it to his teeth with a wing.
(k) Abaye: None of these worked for me; an Arab told me to roast pits of unripe olives on a glowing hot shovel and apply it to my teeth, and this worked.
(l) Question: How could R. Yochanan allow a Nochris to heal him? He himself said that any wound for which we may desecrate Shabbos, a Nochri may not heal it!
(m) Answer #1: An important person may be healed by them (since they are afraid to harm him).
(n) Question: But R. Avahu was important, and Yakov Minah applied a potion to his thigh that would have cut it off, had R. Ami and Rav Asi not removed it!
(o) Answer #2: The Nochris who healed R. Yochanan was a professional (she would not harm him and ruin her reputation).
(p) Question: Also Yakov Minah was a professional, and he sought to harm R. Avahu!
(q) Answer (to both questions): The Minim had an exceptional hatred of R. Avahu, they were willing to suffer themselves just to harm him (as Shimshon did to the Plishtim) - "Tamos Nafshi Im Plishtim".
(a) (Shmuel): A wound from a sword is dangerous, we desecrate Shabbos for it.
1. To stop the bleeding, he should drink (some say - apply to the wound) cress in vinegar;
2. To help a scab form, he makes a bandage of a herb and wood of a bush, or worms (R. Chananel - excrement).
(b) (Rav Safra): Large blisters are a precursor to death;
1. To cure them, he eats grated rue with honey, or celery with wine.
2. Until this is ready, he should press on the blisters grapes of the same color (white or black).
(c) (Rava): Boils come on account of a fever;
1. To cure them, he should snap his finger against them 60 times, and cut them lengthwise and widthwise.
2. This is needed only if the top of the boil is not white;
i. If it is white, one must merely take out the pus.

(d) R. Yakov had a pain in his rectum; R. Ami told him to wrap seven red aloe seeds in a certain cloth, tie it with a certain string, dip it in white stacte (a spice), burn it, and scatter the ashes on the top of the rectum.
1. Until this is ready, he should place pits of shrub-nuts on the rectum;
2. For the bottom, he should apply melted Chelev of a goat that has not given birth; if not, he should take three dried gourd leaves, and spread them on it; if not, shells of snails; if not, oil blended into wax, and he should cover himself with linen clothing if it is summer, or (warm) cotton clothing if it is winter.
(e) R. Avahu's ear hurt him; he was told to take the kidney of a goat, tear it lengthwise and widthwise, put it on glowing coals, and put the liquid that exudes (when it is lukewarm) in the ear;
1. If not, he should apply melted Chelev of a fat beetle; if not, he should fill the ear with oil, make seven wicks of fodder, and (one by one) put one end in a fire, the other end in the ear, and beware of drafts; (some say, the wicks are rubbed with oil of fodder).
2. If not, he should take unbeaten tufts, and put them in the ear, facing a fire.
3. If not, he should take a 100 year old reed, salt it, roast it and stick it to the ear.
i. The liquid remedies help a dry ear, the dry remedies help a wet ear.
(f) (Rabah bar Zutra): We may raise drooping ears on Shabbos.
(g) Version #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah): Only the hand may be used, not a potion.
(h) Version #2 (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah): Only a potion may be used, not the hand.
1. This is because by hand, one makes a wound.
(a) (Rav): If an eye is about to leave the socket, one may apply a potion to it on Shabbos.
(b) Rabanan assumed, one may not do Melachah for this, e.g. to grind ingredients for it or carry though a public domain, rather it must be ready from before Shabbos.
(c) (R. Yakov citing Rav Yehudah): One *may* do Melachah for this.
(d) (Rav Yehudah): One may apply a potion to an eye on Shabbos.
(e) (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah): (Rashi - One) who will do as Rav Yehudah, he desecrates Shabbos!
(f) Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah's eye was hurting; he asked if he may apply a potion.
(g) Rav Yehudah: It is permitted for everyone *except* you!
1. I did not say the Halachah on my own, I received it from Shmuel (in addition to being the greatest Chacham in Bavel (after Rav), Shmuel was a brilliant doctor).!
2. A slave in Shmuel's house was screaming because she felt burning in her eye on Shabbos; no one helped her. Her eye fell out; the next day, Shmuel taught that one may apply a potion to an eye about to leave the socket on Shabbos.
3. Question: Why is it permitted?
4. Answer: Nerves connect the eye to the heart (therefore, this is mortal danger, full desecration of Shabbos is permitted; Tosfos - sight and understanding of the heart depend on each other, therefore we are lenient to allow this (but not mid'Oraisa desecration of Shabbos)).
(h) Question: For what eye afflictions may one desecrate Shabbos?
(i) Answer (Rav Yehudah): If eye gum drips from it, a stabbing pain, inflammation and the beginning of sickness.
1. He excludes the end of sickness, or to improve vision.
(j) (Rav Yehudah): Going to a bathhouse is dangerous for the following - one stung by a wasp, cut by a thorn, has a boil, whose eye hurts, or has a fever;
(k) Radishes are good for sunstroke, beets for chills, but vice-versa is dangerous;
(l) A scorpion bite should be put in hot water, a wasp bite should be put in cold water, vice-versa is dangerous;
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