POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 47
1) DOES "SHINUY" PERMIT THINGS TO BE USED IN THE MIKDASH?
(a) Answer #1 (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Nachman - Mishnah): Any
animal disqualified from being a sacrifice, its offspring
are not disqualified;
1. (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): They are forbidden.
(b) Rejection (and Answer #2): Rav Nachman taught, they argue
when the animal became pregnant *after* it became
2. Version #1: (They argue whether or not the Shinuy of
birth permits a fetus in an animal that became
disqualified, and similarly, whether or not Shinuy
permits the wheat.)
1. If it was pregnant *when* (it became disqualified
because) a man had relations with it (or it gored or
was Ne'evad), all agree that the calf is
(c) Rejection: That is no proof - a calf being born is not a
Shinuy, it merely left when the door (of the womb)
2. The Shinuy of birth does not permit the calf - here
also, it does not permit the wheat!
3. Version #2: They argue when the animal became
pregnant after it became disqualified;
i. If it was pregnant when a man had relations
with it, all agree that the calf is
ii. The Shinuy of birth does not permit the calf -
here also, it does not permit the wheat!
1. Wheat that was turned into flour changed, perhaps it
(a) Question (Reish Lakish): If a Nochri bowed to a date
tree, may a Lulav of the tree be used for the Mitzvah?
3) A COMMON WALL WITH A HOUSE OF IDOL-WORSHIP
1. If the tree was initially planted to be worshipped,
it is forbidden to benefit from it, surely one may
not use it for the Mitzvah;
(b) (Rav Dimi): His question was about an Asheirah that was
nullified: does Dichuy apply to Mitzvos (if something was
disqualified from being used for a Mitzvah, after the
reason disqualifying it goes away, may it be used for the
2. The question is if the tree was planted and later
i. According to R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah, it is
forbidden to benefit from it, surely one may
not use it for the Mitzvah;
ii. The question is according to Chachamim: is it
repulsive to use for a Mitzvah, or not?
1. Question: Why didn't he settle the question from a
(c) His question is not resolved.
i. (Mishnah): If one covered the blood and it
became exposed, he need not cover it again; if
the wind (blew dirt and) covered it, he must
2. Answer: He knew that Dichuy does not apply there;
ii. (Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is only if it
became uncovered - if not, he is exempt.
iii. Question: Even if it becomes uncovered - once
the Mitzvah was lost, it should not return!
iv. Answer (Rav Papa): This teaches that if a
Mitzvah cannot be performed now, and later it
can be performed, the Mitzvah applies.
i. He was unsure if the Tana was certain about
this, or if he was in doubt (and requires
covering the blood in case the Halachah is that
Dichuy does not apply).
(d) Question (Rav Papa): If a Nochri bowed to an animal, may
its wool be used for Techeiles?
1. Question: For what use of Techeiles does he refer?
(e) Question (Rav Papa): May its wool be used for Techeiles,
may its horns be used for trumpets, its thigh bones for
flutes (for Leviyim to play in the Mikdash), its
intestines for strings for harps?
i. If for the garments of the Kohanim - this is
like Rami bar Chama's questions (if Ne'evad
applies to things used for the Avodah, and if
2. Answer: Indeed, there was no Chidush to this
question; he only asked it among other questions.
ii. If for a person to put on his Tzitzis - this is
Reish Lakish's question (of Dichuy with respect
to Mitzvos, and the question of Shinuy)!
1. According to the opinion that the primary Mitzvah of
Shirah of the Leviyim is to play instruments, surely
it is forbidden;
(f) This question is not resolved.
2. The question is according to the opinion that the
primary Mitzvah of Shirah of the Leviyim is to sing.
i. Since the instruments merely enhance the
voices, it is permitted;
ii. Or perhaps, in any case it is forbidden?
(g) Question (Rabah): If a Nochri bows to a spring, may the
water be used for Nesachim?
1. Question: What does he ask?
i. If he asks if he bows to his reflection or to
the water - he could have asked 'If a Nochri
bows to a flask of water, may one benefit from
2. Answer: He knows that he bows to the water; the
question is, does he worship the water in front of
him (and it flows away, the water which comes
afterwards is permitted)?
i. Or, does he worship the source, and the entire
spring is forbidden?
3. Question: But he cannot forbid the spring!
i. (R. Yochanan): Public water cannot be
4. Answer: The case is, the spring is contained within
(a) (Mishnah): A man's house had a wall adjacent to a house
of idolatry. If it fell, he may not rebuild it;
1. Rather, he retreats four Amos into his own property,
and rebuilds it.
(b) If he jointly owned the wall (and its place) with the
idolatry, half of its place counts towards four Amos;
(c) Its stones and dirt are Teme'im like a rodent (which is
called Sheketz) - "Shaketz Teshaktzenu".
4) NULLIFICATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF IDOLS
(d) R. Akiva says, they are Teme'im like a Nidah - "Tizrem
1. Just as a Nidah has Tum'as Masa, also idolatry.
(e) (Gemara) Question: By distancing himself, he allows more
room for idolatry!
(f) Answer #1 (Rav Chanina of Sura): He uses the area as a
1. Question: But one must relieve himself modestly, not
where he can be seen!
(g) Answer #2: He fills the area with thorns.
2. Answer: He uses it as a bathroom at night.
3. Question: It was taught, a modest person is one who
relieves himself at night in the same place as he
does by day (i.e. far from people)!
i. Even though we established that to mean, in the
same *way* as he does by day, in any case he
should not be so close to people!
4. Answer: He uses it as a bathroom for children.
(a) (Mishnah): There are three laws of houses forbidden on
account of idolatry:
1. If a house was built from the beginning to be
worshipped, it is forbidden (unless it was a
Nochri's and the Nochri nullified it);
(b) (Gemara - Rav): If one bows to a house, he forbids it.
2. If one plastered or illustrated the walls for the
sake of idolatry, when this addition is removed, the
house is permitted;
3. If idolatry was brought in and removed, the house is
(c) Inference: Rav holds that something which was detached
(i.e. the wood and stones) and later attached is
considered detached (regarding idolatry).
(d) Question: But the Mishnah discusses a house *built* to be
worshipped (not one that was worshipped)!
(e) Answer: It discusses a house that was built to be
worshipped and was not worshipped, the same applies to
one that was worshipped but not built to be worshipped.
(f) Question: If so, there are four types of forbidden
(g) Answer: The Tana only counts houses with different laws
(h) (Mishnah): There are three laws of rocks forbidden on
account of idolatry:
1. If a rock was originally quarried to be used as a
base for idolatry (and the rock itself will be
worshipped), it is forbidden;
(i) (Gemara - R. Ami): (Plastering or illustrating the rock
forbids it) only if it was chiseled into the rock itself.
2. If one plastered or illustrated it for the sake of
idolatry, when this addition is removed, the rock is
3. If idolatry was put on it and removed, the rock is
(j) Objection: Presumably, the case is similar to the
previous Mishnah, plastering or illustrating a house, and
there it is on the walls, not in them!
1. Question: But the plaster or design enters between
(k) Correction: Rather, R. Ami taught that even if the
plaster or design was chiseled into the rock itself, when
it is removed, the rock is permitted.
2. Answer: The Mishnah is in all cases, even if the
house was already smooth (without crevices).
1. One might have thought, since it was chiseled in, it
is as if the rock was originally quarried for
idolatry, and the entire rock is forbidden - he
teaches, this is not so.