POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 50
1) MARKULIS (cont.)
(a) Question: But R. Yishmael says that they are forbidden if
they are next to Markulis (and Chachamim argue)!
(b) Answer: This means, next to (but outside) its four Amos.
1. R. Yishmael holds that it is common to make a small
Markulis near a big Markulis - three rocks are a
small Markulis, therefore three are forbidden, two
(c) We said that if they are very close to Markulis, all
agree that they are forbidden, perhaps they fell from it.
2. Chachamim hold that it is not common to make a small
Markulis near a big Markulis - whether there are two
or three rocks, they are forbidden only if they are
seen with it.
(d) Question (Beraisa): Stones that fell from Markulis - if
they can be seen with Markulis, they are forbidden; if
not, they are permitted;
1. R. Yishmael says, three stones (together) are
forbidden, two are permitted.
(e) Correction: The Beraisa should say, stones that *are
found near* Markulis.
(f) Contradiction: R. Yishmael does not permit two stones!
1. (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Two stones in one Tefisah
(they can be grabbed at once with Markulis, Rashi -
and they are within four Amos of it) are forbidden,
if they are in two Tefisos (i.e. not in the same
Tefisah), they are permitted;
(g) Question: Two stones do not comprise Markulis!
2. Question: What is the case of two Tefisos?
3. Answer: There is a barrier in between them and
1. (Beraisa): Stones of Beis Kulis: two stones next to
each other, and one on top of them.
(h) Answer (Rava): That refers to a primary Markulis (but a
minor Markulis of even two stones is also worshipped).
(i) The house of King Yanai was destroyed; Nochrim erected
Markulis. Other Nochrim (that do not worship Markulis)
took the stones and used them for roads. Some Chachamim
refrained from using those roads, other Chachamim used
1. R. Yochanan: If (R. Menachem b'Rebbi Sima'i), the
son of Kedoshim uses them, how can we refrain?!
(j) Question: Why did some Chachamim refrain?
2. Question: Why is he called the son of Kedoshim?
3. Answer: He would not even look at the image on a
(k) Answer: They hold like Rav Gidal.
1. (Rav Gidal): Takroves (something offered to
idolatry) can never be nullified - "Va'Yitzamedu
l'Va'al Pe'or va'Yochelu Zivchei Mesim";
(l) The Chachamim that used the roads say that Takroves is
forbidden only if the Avodah resembles Avodah in the
Mikdash (stones of Markulis are only forbidden like
idolatry, building them into the road nullified them).
i. Just as a Mes is never nullified (it is always
forbidden), also Takroves.
(m) (Rabah bar Yirmeyah - Beraisa): If a Nochri took stones
from Markulis and used them for roads, they are
permitted; if a Yisrael did so, they are forbidden.
(n) Rav Yosef bar Aba: No Chacham can explain this Beraisa!
2) HELPING TREES IN SHEMITAH AND DURING CHOL HA'MO'ED
(o) Answer (Rav Sheshes): I am not such a great Chacham, but
I can explain it!
1. Rav Yosef could not explain it because of Rav
Gidal's law (Takroves can never be nullified);
2. The Tana holds that only Takroves like Avodas Penim
is forbidden, therefore the stones (which were only
thrown) are not Takroves, rather idolatry, idolatry
can be nullified (by a Nochri)!
(a) (Rabah bar Yirmeyah - Beraisa): We may remove worms from
a tree and put fertilizer where bark fell off in
Shemitah, these are forbidden during Chol ha'Mo'ed;
3) HOW MUCH MUST THE AVODAH RESEMBLE "AVODAS PENIM"?
1. It is forbidden to prune it (to encourage more
growth) in Shemitah or on Chol ha'Mo'ed;
(b) Rav Yosef bar Aba: No Chacham can explain this Beraisa!
2. One may apply oil to a pruned tree in Shemitah or on
(c) (Ravina): I am not such a Chacham, but I can explain it!
(d) Question: Why did Rav Yosef consider it inexplicable?
(e) Answer #1: It permits (removing worms and putting
fertilizer) in Shemitah and forbids during Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(f) Rejection: That is not difficult - only Melachos are
forbidden in Shemitah, not exertion; on Chol ha'Mo'ed,
even exertion is forbidden!
(g) Answer #2: It permits putting fertilizer in Shemitah, but
(h) Rejection: That is not difficult - preventing
deterioration is permitted, improving is forbidden!
(i) Answer #3: It permits putting fertilizer in Shemitah, but
a Mishnah forbids this!
1. (Mishnah): We may put fertilizer on young trees,
wrap (the branches together so they will not droop
on the ground; alternatively, wrap something around
the tree to protect from the sun or the cold), cut
the ends of the branches (some say - put ashes on
them), and make a fence around them (Rambam - make a
cover to provide shade), and water them in Erev
Shemitah until Rosh Hashanah.
(j) Rejection: We can explain as Rav Ukva bar Chama answered
2. Inference: These are forbidden in Shemitah itself!
1. (Rav Ukva bar Chama): There are two kinds of digging
under olive trees:
(k) Answer #4: It permits applying oil in Shemitah and on
Chol ha'Mo'ed, a Mishnah forbids this in Shemitah!
i. One improves the tree, it is forbidden (in
Shemitah); one is to cover roots that became
exposed, it is permitted.
2. Similarly, there are two kinds of putting
i. One sustains the tree, it is permitted; one
improves the tree, it is forbidden.
1. (Mishnah): We may put oil on unripe figs, puncture
them and put oil inside in Erev Shemitah until Rosh
(l) Rejection: That is not difficult - the Beraisa permits
putting oil to sustain, the Mishnah forbids putting oil
to fatten the fruit!
2. Inference: These are forbidden in Shemitah itself!
(m) Answer #5 (Rav Sama brei d'Rav Ashi): Rabah bar Yirmeyah
could not explain why putting oil is permitted on Chol
ha'Mo'ed, but putting fertilizer is forbidden - both are
(a) (Rav Yehudah): An idolatry that is served with a stick:
1. If one breaks a stick in front of it, he is Chayav
Misah; if one throws a stick in front of it, he is
(b) Question (Abaye): Breaking a stick is liable, for this is
like slaughter (of Kodshim, in which the neckbone is
1. Also throwing is like Zerikah!
(c) Answer (Rava): Only throwing something that splits up is
(like Zerikah of blood and is) liable.
(d) Question (Beraisa): If one fed (Rashi; Tosfos - dirtied)
an idol with excrement, or poured urine in front of it he
1. We understand pouring urine - this is throwing that
(e) Answer: The Beraisa discusses liquid excrement
2. Why is he liable for excrement - it does not split