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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Avodah Zarah 64

AVODAH ZARAH 64 (14 Iyar) - this Daf has been dedicated by Hagaon Rav Yosef Pearlman of London, England, l'Iluy Nishmas ha'Rabbani Reb Rephael David ben Yosef Yitzchak Pearlman, whose passed away on Pesach Sheni (14 Iyar) 5758.


(a) Question: If a worker was hired to break a barrel of Yayin Nesech, are the wages permitted?
1. Since the Yisrael wants the wine to exist until he will (be paid to) dispose of it, it is forbidden;
2. Or, perhaps we permit this, in order to decrease the despised matter?
(b) Answer (Rav Nachman): He will be blessed for breaking it (the wages are permitted).
(c) Support (Beraisa): We may not dig with a Nochri in a field in which he grows Kilayim, but we may uproot with him, to decrease the despised matter.
(d) We are thinking that the Beraisa is like R. Akiva, who says that one who keeps Kilayim (even if he did not plant it, but he builds a fence to guard it) is lashed.
1. (Beraisa): One who removes weeds from Kilayim or covers it with dirt (to help it grow) is lashed;
2. R. Akiva says, even one who keeps it.
3. Question: What is R. Akiva's reason?
4. Answer: It says "Sadcha Lo Sizra Kilayim" - one might have thought, only sowing is forbidden;
i. "Kilayim Sadcha Lo" forbids even keeping it.
5. Culmination of support: Even though R. Akiva forbids keeping Kilayim, he permits uprooting it to decrease the despised matter.
(e) Rejection: No, the Beraisa is Chachamim.
(f) Question: If so, the Beraisa should permit keeping it, this is a bigger Chidush than uprooting it!
(g) Answer: The case is, the Yisrael helps for free; it is like R. Yehudah, who forbids giving a free gift to Nochrim;
1. For the sake of decreasing despised matter, he permits uprooting.
(h) Support (for Rav Nachman): R. Yehudah is lenient (to permit working for free for Nochrim) in order to decrease despised matter, presumably R. Akiva also is lenient (to permit uprooting Kilayim) in order to decrease the despised matter!
(i) This cannot be challenged.
(a) Question: What is the law of money a Nochri received for (selling) idolatry?
1. Does idolatry transfer its prohibition (to what it is exchanged for) when a Nochri sells it, or not?
(b) Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Presumably, it is permitted - we learn from the following episode:
1. Some people who were about to convert came in front of Rabah bar Avuha; he counseled them to sell all their idolatry before converting.
2. Suggestion: This was because money a Nochri received for idolatry is permitted (but if they would sell it after converting, it would be forbidden)!
(c) Rejection: Since they planned to convert, surely they were Mevatel the idolatry before selling it (but if not, it would transfer its prohibition).
(d) Answer #2 (Beraisa): If a Nochri owed money to a Yisrael and he sold idolatry or Yayin Nesech to get money to pay, the money is permitted;
1. If he said 'Wait until I sell my idolatry or Yayin Nesech, then I will pay you', it is forbidden.
(e) Question: What is the difference between the clauses?
(f) Answer (Rav Sheshes): In the latter clause, the Yisrael is happy that the idolatry endures until it is sold.
(g) Question: Is it really true that if a Yisrael wants idolatry to exist, it is forbidden?!
1. (Mishnah): If a convert and his Nochri brother inherited their father, the convert can say 'You take the idolatry and Yayin Nesech, I will take the money and produce;
2. If idolatry or Yayin Nesech already came to the convert's premises, he cannot ask for something in exchange for it.
(h) Answer #1 (Rabah bar Ula): The Mishnah refers to idolatry that retains its value even if broken (e.g. it is made of gold or silver, therefore, the Yisrael does not care whether or not it is broken).
1. Question: Regarding Yayin Nesech, how can we answer?
2. Answer: The Yayin Nesech was absorbed in pottery shards (even if they are broken, the wine can be recovered).
(i) Objection: Even though the Yisrael doesn't care if it breaks, he wants the idolatry and Yayin Nesech around - if it would be lost or stolen, his brother would demand half of the money and produce!
(j) Answer #2 (Rav Papa): (Mid'Oraisa, the convert does not inherit; mid'Rabanan,) we are lenient, we allow him to inherit and 'trade' with his brother (before the idolatry comes to his premises), lest he will resent losing his inheritance, renounce his conversion and return to live like a Nochri.

(k) Support (Beraisa): We only allow this regarding inheritance, but a Yisrael that was a partner with a Nochri may not request a larger share of permitted things in exchange for letting the Nochri keep the idolatry.
(a) Question: Can a Ger Toshav Mevatel idolatry?
1. Do we say, only one who serves idolatry can Mevatel it?
2. Or, since he is like a Nochri (he only has seven Mitzvos), he can Mevatel?
(b) Answer (Rav Nachman): Presumably, since he does not serve idolatry, he cannot Mevatel it.
(c) Question (Beraisa): If a Yisrael found idolatry in the market, before he takes it, he can tell a Nochri to Mevatel it;
1. After he takes it, he cannot do so.
2. (The first law is because) Chachamim taught that a Nochri can Mevatel his or his colleague's idolatry, whether or not he serves it.
3. Question: What does it mean 'whether or not he serves *it*'?
i. Suggestion: Whether or not he serves *this* idolatry (but in any case, he serves idolatry).
ii. Rejection: The Beraisa teaches this just before this, 'he can Mevatel his or his colleague's idolatry'!
4. Answer #1: It means whether or not he serves idolatry (and still, he can Mevatel) - likewise, a Ger Toshav can Mevatel!
(d) Answer (and Answer #2 to Question (3)): Really, it means whether or not he serves this idolatry;
1. The previous clause teaches that he can Mevatel his own idol or his colleague's (who serves the same idolatry), this clause teaches that he can Mevatel idols of a different idolatry.
(e) Question (Beraisa - R. Meir): A Ger Toshav is one who accepted in front of three Chaverim not to serve idolatry;
1. Chachamim say, he must accept the seven Mitzvos of Benei No'ach;
2. Others say, he must accept all the Mitzvos, except for the prohibition to eat Neveilos.
3. A Yisrael may leave a Ger Toshav alone with wine in the Yisrael's store for a short time, even if the city is mostly Nochrim;
i. He may not deposit wine by him for a long time, even if the city is mostly Yisraelim.
4. The oil of a Ger Toshav is like his wine.
5. Objection: This implies that we are stringent to forbid benefit from his oil - this is unreasonable (people do not Menasech oil - at most, it should be forbidden to eat, as we decreed about bread and cooked foods of Nochrim)!
6. Correction: The wine of a Ger Toshav is like his oil (it is forbidden to drink it, one may benefit from it).
7. In all other respects, he is like a Nochri.
i. Version #1: R. Shimon says, his wine is Yayin Nesech.
ii. Version #2: R. Shimon says, it is permitted to drink his wine.
8. Suggestion: 'In all other respects, he is like a Nochri' - this teaches that he can Mevatel idolatry!
(f) Answer: No, it this teaches that he can give permission or Mevatel his premises (allow others to enter his property, to enable an Eiruv to permit carrying in a joint Chatzer).
1. (Beraisa): If a Yisrael desecrates Shabbos in private, but not in public, he can Mevatel his premises;
2. If he desecrates Shabbos in public, he cannot Mevatel his premises;
3. This is because (he is like a Nochri, and) Chachamim said that a Yisrael can give permission or Mevatel his premises, the only solution with a Nochri is if the Yisraelim rent his premises;
i. Regarding a Yisrael, it suffices for him to say 'My premises are acquired or Batul to you', this itself makes a Kinyan (regarding Eiruv).
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