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Avodah Zarah 67


(a) (Mishnah): The general rule is - if it gives a beneficial taste...
(b) (Rav Yehudah): The Halachah is like our Mishnah.
(c) (Rav Yehudah and Rabah bar bar Chanah): We only permit when the vinegar fell on hot grits;
1. If it fell on cold grits and then they were heated, this is like something which initially was li'Shvach (improves the taste) and later was Pogem (spoils the taste), it is forbidden.
(d) (Rav Dimi): People used to put vinegar on cold grits on Erev Shabbos in Tzipori - they called it Shichlayim (cress), for vinegar is also added to Shichlayim.
(e) Version #1 (Reish Lakish): (The Mishnah) does not permit on account of Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam if the mixture tastes bad on account of too much or too little salt or spices;
1. Rather, Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam applies if it is properly seasoned, and the Isur spoils the taste.
(f) Version #2 (Reish Lakish): (The Mishnah) does not say, if a mixture had more or less seasoning it would taste good, therefore we do not permit on account of Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam;
1. Rather, if (as it is seasoned) now the Isur spoils the taste, it is permitted.
(g) (R. Avahu): If the Isur gives taste and is intact - if it has k'Zayis (an olive's worth of Isur) bi'Chdei Achilas Pras (in the volume of a half loaf (three or four eggs)), it is forbidden, one is lashed for eating (a k'Zayis of Isur in) the mixture;

1. If the Isur gives taste and is not intact (Rashi - it was dissolved; R. Eliyahu - if it is less than k'Zayis bi'Chdei Achilas Pras; R. Yosef - even if it has k'Zayis bi'Chdei Achilas Pras), it is forbidden, one is not lashed for eating it;
2. If it makes the taste even worse, it is permitted.
3. Question: Why not say that if it harms the taste, it is permitted?
4. Answer: This teaches that even if other (permitted) things also harm the taste, it is permitted.
(h) The Halachah follows Version #2 of Reish Lakish.
(i) (Rav Kahana): We learn from all these Amora'im that Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam is permitted.
(j) Objection (Abaye): Granted, we learn from the others, but how do we learn from Reish Lakish?
1. He explains the Mishnah - perhaps he holds that the Halachah does not follow our Mishnah!
(k) Question: This implies that a Tana forbids Nosen Ta'am li'Fgam!
(l) Answer: Yes!
1. (Beraisa - R. Meir): Whether an Isur is li'Shvach or li'Fgam, it forbids (a mixture);
2. R. Shimon says, li'Shvach forbids, li'Fgam does not.
(m) R. Meir learns from Isur absorbed in vessels of Nochrim - even though it is li'Fgam, the Torah forbids it (i.e. vessels taken from Midyan had to be Kashered).
(n) R. Shimon explains like Rav Huna brei d'Rav Chiya.
1. (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Chiya): The Torah only forbids a vessel that absorbed Isur the same day (most explain - within the last 24 hours) (after this, the taste is Pagum).
2. R. Meir says, even if the Isur was absorbed the same day, it is somewhat Pagum (therefore, we do not distinguish, it is forbidden in any case).
(o) Question: What is R. Shimon's reason?
(p) Answer (Beraisa): "Lo Sochlu Chol Nevelah la'Ger (...Titnenah va'Achalah)" - it is only called (and forbidden like) Neveilah if a Ger (Toshav) would eat it.
1. R. Meir does not learn from here - he says that this only excludes a Neveilah which was spoiled from the beginning (before the animal died).
2. R. Shimon does not need a verse to exclude that case, it is like dirt.
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