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Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Avodah Zarah 73
AVODAH ZARAH 72-76 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
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1) MIXTURES WITH "YAYIN NESECH"
(a) (Mishnah): Yayin Nesech (R. Tam; Ramban - the same
applies to all wine of Nochrim) is forbidden, (if it was
mixed with other wine), it forbids b'Mashehu (regarding
2) IGNORING THE PERMITTED WINE
(b) If wine mixes with water or water mixes with wine, it
(the forbidden liquid) forbids b'Nosen Ta'am (if it can
be tasted in the mixture; Rif - if it improves the taste,
i.e. at least one part in seven is wine, such a mixture
is considered wine);
(c) The general rule is:
1. Min b'Mino (if Isur (forbidden food) was mixed with
the same variety of Heter (permitted food)), it
(d) (Gemara - Rav Dimi citing R. Yochanan): If one pours
Yayin Nesech from a barrel into a pit of wine, even for
an entire day, each bit poured in becomes Batul (it is
all permitted) (Tosfos - if all the Yayin Nesech is less
than one part in 60 of the Heter wine; Ra'avad - as long
as he does not pour this much Yayin Nesech (one part in
60 of the Heter wine) in at one time (i.e. without
stopping); Rashi - even if he pours in this amount at
2. Lo b'Mino (if different varieties mixed), it forbids
(e) Question (Mishnah): Yayin Nesech is forbidden, it forbids
1. Suggestion: This is even if Yayin Nesech fell into
(f) Answer: No, it is if Heter fell into Yayin Nesech.
(g) Question (Mishnah): If wine mixes with water, it forbids
1. Suggestion: Asur wine fell into Heter water.
(h) Answer: No, Heter wine fell into Asur water (e.g. it was
(i) Question: Since this clause discusses Asur water, also
the next clause (if water mixes with wine, it forbids
b'Nosen Ta'am) - this refutes Rav Dimi, who says that
each bit is Batul!
(j) Answer: No, the entire Mishnah discusses Heter that fell
into Isur; the last clause discusses Heter water that
fell into Asur wine.
(k) (R. Yitzchak bar Yosef citing R. Yochanan): If one pours
Yayin Nesech from a small flask into a pit of wine, even
for an entire day, each bit poured in becomes Batul;
1. This is only if he pours from a small flask - if he
pours from a barrel, it flows in a large stream, it
(l) (Ravin citing R. Yochanan): If Yayin Nesech fell into a
pit of wine, and water also fell in, we ignore the Heter
wine; if there is enough water to Mevatel the Yayin
Nesech, it is permitted.
(m) Version #1 (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah citing R. Yochanan):
Ravin's law only applies if the water fell in before the
Yayin Nesech - but if the Yayin Nesech fell in first, it
forbids the whole pit (and there is not enough water to
Mevatel all the wine in the pit).
(n) Version #2 (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah citing R. Yochanan):
The Mishnah says that Yayin Nesech is forbidden and
forbids b'Mashehu - this is only if water did not fall in
1. If water also fell in, we ignore the Heter wine, if
there is enough water to Mevatel the Yayin Nesech,
it is permitted. (End of Version #2)
(o) Question: What difference does it make if Rav Shmuel was
commenting on the Mishnah or on Ravin?
(p) Answer: If he commented on the Mishnah, he does not
distinguish whether the water fell in before or after the
1. If he commented on Ravin, he teaches that if the
water did not fall first, it does not Mevatel the
(a) Yayin Nesech fell into a pit containing wine of Heter and
(b) (Chizkiyah): If the Isur increased (Rashi - i.e. the pit
contained wine of Heter, water and Yayin Nesech fell in,
in either order; Tosfos - the water fell in after the
wines already mixed (and were all forbidden)), the
mixture is forbidden (there is not enough water to
Mevatel all the wine);
3) WHICH PROHIBITIONS FORBID "B'MASHEHU?"
1. If the Heter increased (the pit contained Yayin
Nesech, water fell in (and was Mevatel it), and
later wine of Heter fell in), it is permitted.
(c) (R. Yochanan): Even if the Isur increased (Rashi - and
the water preceded the Yayin Nesech), it is permitted
(d) Suggestion (R. Yirmeyah): Chizkiyah and R. Yochanan argue
as R. Eliezer and Chachamim do!
1. (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): If Se'or of Chulin and of
Terumah fell into a dough, and there was not enough
of either one to Mechametz the dough, together they
made it Chametz, the dough is like the last one that
(e) Rejection (R. Zeira): No, Abaye taught, this is only if
the Terumah was removed before the Se'or fell in - if it
was not removed, R. Eliezer forbids in both cases;
2. Chachamim say, no matter which fell in last, it is
forbidden (to a non-Kohen) only if there was enough
(Se'or of) Terumah to Mechametz it without the
1. In our case, the Isur was not removed -- Chizkiyah
is like neither Tana (R. Eliezer would forbid
whether Isur or Heter increased, Chachamim would
(f) (R. Zeira): Rather, they argue whether or not we ignore
(the permitted wine) - Chizkiyah says that we do not
ignore it (when Isur increased), R. Yochanan says that we
(g) Question: But R. Yochanan was unsure whether or not we
1. Question (Rav Asi): If two cups of wine (diluted
with water) got mixed together, one was Chulin, the
other was Terumah, what is the law? (There was 60
(R. Yitzchak - six) times as much water as Terumah
wine, but not 60 (R. Yitzchak - six) times as much
as all the wine - do we ignore the Chulin wine?)
(h) Answer: Originally, he was unsure; later, he concluded
that we ignore.
2. R. Yochanan was unable to answer.
(i) Support (R. Ami citing R. Yochanan): If two cups of
diluted wine, Chulin and Terumah, got mixed, we ignore
the Chulin wine, the water (if there is enough) is
Mevatel the Terumah.
(a) (Mishnah): The general rule is: Min b'Mino, it forbids
b'Mashehu; Lo b'Mino, it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am.
(b) (Rav and Shmuel): All forbidden foods, if mixed b'Mino,
forbid b'Mashehu; if mixed Lo b'Mino, they forbid b'Nosen
1. The Mishnah says 'The general rule is' to include
all forbidden foods.
(c) (R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish): Only Tevel (Tosfos - and
other prohibitions which have Matirim, i.e. one has a
permitted way or time to eat them (without incurring a
loss), such as Shemitah, Ma'aser Sheni, and Hekdesh) and
Yayin Nesech forbid b'Mashehu Min b'Mino, and Lo b'Mino,
1. Everything else forbids b'Nosen Ta'am, whether
b'Mino or Lo b'Mino.
(d) Support (for Rav and Shmuel - Beraisa): All forbidden
foods, if mixed b'Mino, forbid b'Mashehu; if mixed Lo
b'Mino, they forbid b'Nosen Ta'am.
2. The Mishnah says 'The general rule is' to include
(e) Support (for R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish - Beraisa): All
forbidden foods forbid b'Nosen Ta'am, whether b'Mino or
1. The only exceptions are Tevel and Yayin Nesech - if
mixed b'Mino, they forbid b'Mashehu; Lo b'Mino,
(f) Question: We understand, we are more stringent regarding
Yayin Nesech because of the severity of idolatry;
1. Why are we more stringent about Tevel (Tosfos - even
when it does not have Matirim)?
(g) Answer: Its prohibition resembles the way it becomes
1. (Shmuel): Separating even a tiny amount of Terumah
permits any quantity of Tevel (mid'Oraisa).
(h) Support (Mishnah): Tevel forbids b'Mashehu b'Mino, Lo
b'Mino, it forbids b'Nosen Ta'am (because the above
reasoning does not apply).