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Avodah Zarah 12



(a) In the second Lashon, Resh Lakish asked Rebbi Chanina whether 'Chutzah Lah' in our Mishnah incorporates the butchery of Aza, to which he replied - by comparing it to a Jew and a Nochri in Tzor (Tyre), cooking in two pots one beside the other on the same stove.

(b) When Abaye explains 'Lo Chashu Lahem Chachamim Basar Neveilah', he means - that the Chachamim did not suspect the Nochri of throwing a piece of Neveilah into the Jew's pot (involving an Isur d'Oraysa).

(c) The parallel case in our Mishnah would be - not to suspect that the Nochri is purchasing the animal specifically for the purpose of sacrificing it inside the town, involving the Isur d'Oraysa of "ve'Lo Yidbak be'Yadcha Me'umah min ha'Cherem".

(d) Rava disagrees with Abaye - on the grounds that, whereas we do not suspect the Nochri of throwing Neveilah into the Jew's pot, because a. he gains nothing and b. he is afraid that he might be seen doing so, in our case, the Nochri wants to do his friend who lives in the town a favor, in which case, we cannot ignore the Chashash of an Isur d'Oraysa.

(a) Rava therefore, explains the Chidush of the 'two pots in Tyre' - in that we do not suspect the Yisrael of relying on the Nochri to cook for him (involving an Isur de'Rabbanan).

(b) And the parallel case in our Mishnah is - where the butcher took the money from the till (which is definitely not D'mei Avodas-Kochamim), and we are not Choshesh for the Isur de'Rabbanan of doing business with a Nochri during his festival (because he might sacrifice the animal to his god.

(c) Rabah bar Ula disagrees with Rava, too, declining to compare the two cases.
He is ...

1. ... lenient in the case of the two pots - because it is easy to avoid all problems by stoking the burning coals.
2. ... strict in the case of our Mishnah, because there is no equivalent reason to permit selling or buying in the butchery of Aza, which is so close to the town, and where the likelihood that the butcher belongs to the town is a real one.
(d) And he explains the leniency of ...
1. ... the case of the two pots in Tzor - in that the Chachamim were not afraid of some drops having splashed from the Nochri's pot into the Yisrael's (due to the fact that a. this is not common, and b. it is no more than an Isur de'Rabbanan (seeing as the drops are Bateil be'Rov).
2. ... the case of 'Itluza shel Aza' - inasmuch as Rebbi Chanina permitted 'Lifnei Eidehen', which is only a weak Chashash de'Rabbanan, but not on the festival itself (where the Chashash is much stronger).
(a) The Chachamim in a Beraisa restrict the Isur of entering a town on a festival to where the road leads only into that town and there is no road leading in any other direction from the town, as we learned in our Mishnah. Rebbi Meir, who is more stringent - forbids entering even in the above cases.

(b) The Tana prohibits bending down ...

1. ... in front of an idol to remove a thorn or to pick up some money that fell in front of it.
2. ... to drink from a spring that spouts water in from an idol.
(c) And, after teaching the prohibition of bending down to drink from a regular fountain, he adds that it is even also forbidden to drink water ...
1. ... from the mouth of a water-fountain in the city shaped in the form of a human face. The significance of 'a city' in this case is - purely technical, inasmuch as they are the ones who can afford such elaborate water systems.
2. ... directly from a pipe - because, seeing as he does not first see the water that emerges from the pipe, he may endanger his life by swallowing a leech.
(a) With regard to the prohibition of bending down in front of the idol, the Beraisa adds 've'Im Eino Nir'eh, Mutar'. This cannot mean literally that he cannot be seen, because of Rav Yehudah Amar Rav - who forbids 'Mar'is ha'Ayin' even if one is locked in one's most innermost rooms.

(b) So we amend the words 've'Im Eino Nir'eh' to - 've'Im Eino Nir'eh ke'Mishtachaveh' (meaning that he is facing in another direction).

(a) Having presented the prohibition in the case of ...
1. ... removing a thorn (where he is able to move away and remove it in another location), the Tana found it necessary to add that of picking up money that fell - where he is not, and which we might therefore have permitted).
2. ... picking up money that fell (which after all, is only money), the Tana nevertheless found it necessary to add that of removing a thorn - which involves physical pain (and which we might therefore have permitted).
(b) The Tana saw fit to still add the case of ...
1. ... drinking water from a fountain - which might even involve life-danger (yet still Chazal did not permit it).
2. ... drinking water from the water-fountain - because he wished to add that of drinking directly from a pipe, which is Asur for reasons of Sakanas Nefashos (life-danger, even where there is no Avodah-Zarah involved).
(c) He could not have taught us the same thing following the prohibition of drinking from a fountain - because there, he does not mention the fact that he drinks directly from the water, like he does in the case of the drinking-fountain.



(a) The Beraisa - prohibits drinking from rivers and pools, either directly with one's mouth or with one hand, and that someone who does, is inviting trouble.

(b) Drinking using two hands - would be permitted, because the drinker can see what is in his hands (whereas someone who drinks using one hand, tends to splash the water directly into his mouth without being able to examine what he is drinking).

(c) This Beraisa lends support to a statement of Rebbi Chanina, who ...

1. ... permits heating water on Shabbos on behalf of someone who swallowed a water-leech.
2. ... actually permitted it (though some accredit it to Rebbi Nechemyah) when such a case came before him.
(d) Rav Huna b'rei de'Rav Yehoshua suggested that until the water boils - one should administer vinegar to the patient.
(a) Rav Idi bar Avin advises administering - strong vinegar to someone who swallowed a live hornet.

(b) And he gives this advice, in spite of the fact that he himself states that he cannot live - because the vinegar might delay his death, affording him the opportunity of leaving a last will and testament.

(a) The Beraisa strictly forbids drinking water at night-time ...

(b) ... because of the fear of Shavriri - a demon in charge of blindness.

(c) The Tana leaves someone who is thirsty during the night with two options. One applies to where he has a friend sleeping with him. After waking him up, he simply informs him that he is thirsty (see following answer).

(d) Otherwise, he can bang the barrel with the lid - giving the impression that there is someone with him (in which case the demon will probably leave him alone).

(e) He then says to himself 'P'lanya bar Palnisa (stating his own name), your mother told you to beware of Shavriri ... ', concluding this incantation with - 'B'riri, Riri, Yeri, Ri in white cups'.

(a) Our Mishnah cites a ruling with regard to buying from stores in a town where, on the market-day in honor of their gods, some stores are decorated (with the wares that they sell) and others are not. When precisely such a case came before the Rabbanan in Beis Sha'an, they ruled - that it was permitted to buy from stores that were not decorated, but forbidden to buy from those that were ...

(b) ... because the priests would claim a tax from those stores that were adorned, on behalf of the Avodah-Zarah.

(c) We are not afraid that even the storekeepers whose stores are not decorated, will go and thank their gods for the sale - because only person who buys who is happy, but not when he sells something that lasts (see Maharsha [see also Ran on the Rif]).

(a) Resh Lakish confines the Mishnah's prohibition to a store that is decorated with roses and myrtle, but permits one that is decorated with fruit - because, in his opinion, it is only benefiting from Avodah-Zarah (such as from the smell) that is forbidden, but there is no such prohibition as benefiting Avodah-Zarah.

(b) He learns this from the Pasuk "ve'Lo Yidbak be'Yadcha" Me'umah ... ".

(c) Rebbi Yochanan - includes stores that are decorated with fruit in the prohibition ...

(d) ... because, he says - if it is forbidden to derive any benefit from Avodah-Zarah, then 'Kal va'Chomer' to benefit it.

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