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Avodah Zarah 28

AVODAH ZARAH 28 (8 Nisan) - dedicated by Dovid and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva, l'Iluy Nishmas his mother, Mrs. Seren Rubner. May the light of the Torah shine in their home and the homes of their children, bringing them joy and success in all their endeavors!



(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah stated - that a Nochri may not cure any wound which may be cured on Shabbos (because he is likely to kill the person with the wound) ...

(b) ... implying - that he would allow Nochrim to cure the wound made by a Jewish bloodletter (not like Rav Yehudah on the previous Daf [see also Tosfos DH 'Kol Makah').

(c) According to the second Lashon, Rebbi Yochanan was referring to a 'Makah shel Chalal' - which constitutes any internal wound.

(a) The difference between the two Leshonos is - regarding a wound on the back of the hand or the back of the foot (see also Tosfos DH 'Makah') - for which one may break Shabbos, but which is not an internal wound.

(b) This is based on a statement by Rav Ada bar Masna Amar Rav - who compared a wound on the back of the hand or the back of the foot to a Makah shel Chalal.

(c) The reason for this distinction is - because, according to the first Lashon, we suspect the Nochri of killing a Jew whenever the wound is severe, and killing him is easy; whereas according to the second Lashon, we only suspect him with regard to the internal organs of the Jew, since we cannot see what he is doing, but not with regard to the outside limbs, which we can see.

(a) Rav Zutra bar Tuvyah rules that any wound that is serious enough to require assessment as to whether one will live or not - may be treated on Shabbos.

(b) Rav Sh'man bar bar Ada quotes Rebbi Yochanan that any internal wound does not require assessment adding - that a high fever is considered an internal wound in this regard.

(c) We already learned that any internal illness is subject to Chillul Shabbos. According to Rebbi Ami, 'internal' begins - from the lips and within.

(d) Rebbi Elazar ask a She'eilah about teeth (in spite of the fact that they are technically 'internal') - because they are hard (and might not therefore constitute danger).

(a) The Beraisa rules - that someone who is 'Choshesh be'Shinav be'Shabbos' may not drink vinegar (to alleviate the pain).

(b) Abaye attempts to extrapolate from the Lashon 'Choshesh ... ' - that if it hurts badly, one may (thereby resolving Rebbi Elazar's She'eilah).

(c) We counter however - that for all we 'Choshesh' incorportes severe pain.

(d) When Rebbi Yochanan suffered from thrush, a certain aristocratic woman - administered a cure on Thursdat and on Friday.

(a) When Rebbi Yochanan asked her what to do ...
1. ... should the thrush return on Shabbos, she replied - that it would not.
2. ... just in case it did - she told him how to prepare the remedy, after making him swear that he would not reveal it to anyone (to retain her monopoly over the cure).
(b) Rebbi Yochanan subsequently revealed the cure to the people (despite having sworn not to) - because he had sworn that he would not reveal it *to* the G-d of Yisrael (not that he was swearing *by* the G-d of Yisrael, as the woman had understood).

(c) This did not constitute Chilul Hashem - because he told her immediately of his intentions and why. Had he not done so, it would indeed have been a Chilul Hashem.

(d) There is no proof from the fact that thrush requires treatment on Shabbos, that toothache is indeed considered an internal illness in this regard, says Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak - because thrush is different than a regular toothache, seeing as it begins in the mouth but later spreads to the intestines.

(a) The symptoms of thrush are - that whenever one places something in one's mouth, the gums begin to bleed.

(b) The cause of thrush might be either a wheat dish - eaten cold on a cold winter's day, or a barley dish - eaten hot on a hot summer's day.

(c) Kasa de'Harsena is - a dish of fish which is fried with flour in its own juice.

(d) According to Rav Acha b'rei de'Rava, the cure is a mixture of barley-water, olive-oil and salt. According to Mar bar Rav Ashi, it is duck-oil applied to the teeth with a duck's feather. Abaye declared - that he had tried both these cures, and that neither of them worked.

(e) Eventually, an Arab gave him a cure that did work, consisting of date-pits that had not grown a third - which had to be heated on a new hoe, and stuck to the inside of both rows of teeth.

(a) Initially, we attributed the fact that Rebbi Yochanan just allowed the aristocratic Nochris to cure his toothache, in spite of his earlier ruling forbidding being cured by a Nochri, of an illness that is life-threatening - to the fact that he was an important man, whom the woman would not have dared harm, due to the consequences.

(b) When Ya'akov Miyna'ah administered a potion to Rebbi Avahu - he almost died, and only survived due to the quick action of Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi, who removed it by licking it off his calf, which proves that the fact that the patient is important, will not deter a Nochri from trying to kill him.

(c) So we try to attribute Rebbi Yochanan allowing the Nochris to cure him, to the fact that she was applying her professional skills, and would not jeapordize her good name by killing Rebbi Yochanan.

(d) We reject this explanation however, on the grounds that Ya'akov Miyna'ah ought not to have then tried to kill Rebbi Avahu. So we revert to the first answer. Nevertheless, Ya'akov Miyna'ah tried to kill Rebbi Avahu - because of the latter's ongoing campaign against the Miynim, which resulted in a particularly strong hatred on their part. So much so, that they were willing to jeapordise their own lives, in order to get rid of him (in keeping with Simshon's statement, as he brought the house down on the P'lishtim and on himself) "Tamos Nafshi im Plishtim".

(a) Shmuel - considers a sword-wound life-threatening, and permits breaking the Shabbos on account of it.

(b) To stop the bleeding one needs to take cress (see also Tosfos DH 'Tichli') - mixed with vinegar.

(c) To cure the wound, one requires the roots of a Yivli plant and a bush - both of which which one grinds and mixes together, before applying them to the wound.

(d) The alternative cure is worms - which chickens have picked up from the trash-heap.

(a) Ulcers, says Rav Safra, are life-threatening, too. The cure, he says is the rue plant ground with honey, or wild celery ground in a certain type of old wine. In the interim - one rolls grapes from the vine over the wound. 'bas Miyna' means - big grapes for a large wound, and small ones for a small wound ...

(b) ... a white grape for a white ulcer and a black one for a black ulcer.

(c) According to Rav, the cause of a boil - is an illness which is called (Chamah - heat).

(d) To be cured, after flicking one finger on it sixty times - one cuts it open lengthways and widthways.

(e) If its tip has turned white - this is not necessary, because all it requires is to remove the pus.




(a) When Rebbi Ya'akov suffered from pain in the orifice of the anus, Rebbi Ami or Rebbi Asi instructed him what to do. Rebbi Yochanan instructed Rebbi Avahu what to do, when he suffered from ear-ache. Describing the cure for ear-ache, Abaye declared - that animal kidneys were only created as a cure for ear-ache.

(b) All beverages are bad for the ears except for one, said Rava quoting Dr. Minyumi - water in which a kidney was cooked.

(c) Besides taking the prescribed cures for ear-ache, one should also take care to - avoid winds (and draughts).

(d) With regards to the wet and the dry cures for the ears mentioned in the Sugya - one applies the wet cures to dry ears (which do not emit any fluid), and the dry ones to wet ears (which do).

(a) Rebbi Chanina permits raising ears that drop on Shabbos. The Beraisa cited by Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah permits doing this with one's hands, but not using ointment - like many Isurim de'Rabbanan, which Chazal permitted as long as they are performed in an unprofessional way, whenever possible.

(b) Others say - the opposite, because doing it with the hands causes wounding, which is in itself, Asur on Shabbos.

(a) Rav Zutra bar Tuvya Amar Rav permits painting an eye that is threatening to fall out on Shabbos. Rav Zutra qualifies this ruling - by confining it to where the blue paint is ready to use and does not require transportation through the street, but not if it needs to be ground or transported (seeing as these are Isurim d'Oraysa).

(b) He took this stringent view - because he thought that the case involves only the eye, but is not life-threatening.

(c) Rebbi Ya'akov however, quoted Rav Yehudah as saying - that even the grinding and the transportation are permitted too.

(a) When Rav Yehudah allowed painting an eye that hurts on Shabbos, Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah commented - that nobody would listen to Yehudah the Mechalel Shabbos.

(b) What made his objection particularly unjustifiable - was the fact that Rav Yehudah's ruling stemmed from Shmuel, who issued what appears to have been a well-known ruling permitting it, as we shall see shortly.

(c) When Rav Shmuel's eye hurt him on Shabbos and he asked Rav Yehudah whether he was permitted to paint it, the latter replied - that anyone else was permitted to do so, but he was not.

(d) Shmuel issued his ruling, permitting the painting of one's eyes on Shabbos, after a maidservant in his household - complained of an inflamed eye, which fell out when nobody took any notice of her cries.

(a) Shmuel permitted painting a painful eye on Shabbos (not because of the danger to the eye, but) - because the eye is connected with the heart, and an eye that falls out involves life-danger as well.

(b) Rav Yehudah establishes Shmuel's ruling by eye-gum oozing from the eye, stabbing pains, blood, tears and inflammation - which are permitted at the beginning of the illness, but forbidden at the end.

(c) One may never paint one's eyes on Shabbos - of it is merely in order to improve one's eyesight.

(a) Rav Yehudah says - that a bath is bad for a bee-sting, a splinter, a boil, an eye-ache and fever.

(b) A radish, he says, is good for a fever, and spinach for someone who is freezing - because radishes cool a person down whereas spinach makes him hot.

(c) If ...

1. ... a hot salve is good for a scorpion bite - a cold salve is good for a bee-sting.
2. ... hot water is good for a splinter (though not a hot bath, as we learned earlier) - cold water is good for cracks in one's face.
3. ... vinegar is good for a shoulder from which blood has ben let, small fish are good for eating after a Ta'anis.
(d) In all of the above pairs, Rav Yehudah adds - that switching them round is dangerous.
(a) After eating cress, when one has a fever or when one's eyes are hurting him - he should let blood.

(b) Rav Yehudah finally states - that ...

1. ... letting blood a day after eating fish or vice-versa is in order (see Tosfos DH 'Sheini').
2. ... eating fish on the third day after letting blood - constitutes life-danger.
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