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Avodah Zarah 29



(a) After letting blood, the Beraisa teaches us, one should not eat 'Chagbash'. The 'Ches' represents Chalav (milk) and the 'Gimel', Gevinah (cheese) - the 'Beis', Betzalim (onions) and the 'Shin', Shechalim (a kind of cress).

(b) If one did, the Tana adds, one should drink a mixture of two things. One of them is a Revi'is of vinegar - the other, a Revi'is of wine.

(c) And one should also not relieve oneself on the east side of the town - because the west wind is a powerful one, and it will carry the smell of the above-mentioned harmful foods, with the same affect as if he had eaten them.

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi permits removing the 'Istumcha de'Liba' (a wall of flesh under the heart; or more likely the lobe the heart that is next to the wind-pipe) on Shabbos - because it presses against the wind-pipe, and is likely to make breathing difficult.

(b) The cure for this is a mixture of cumin, mint, horehound, sadree and hyssop, which also serves as a cure for lesions that are created by the wind. The only difference is with what one drinks it. It will be easy to remember what to drink with each one, from the Pasuk ...

1. ..."ve'Yayin Yesamach Levav Enosh" - which indicates 'wine for the heart'.
2. ..."ve'Ru'ach Elokim Merachefes al-P'nei ha'Mayim" - which indicates 'water for the wind'.
(c) And the same cure is used for 'Kuda' (the illness of a woman who is cold at the time of childbirth), which one drinks with beer, as hinted in the Pasuk 've'Kadah al Shichmah' ('Shikra', which is similar-sounding to 'Shichmah" [as ''Kadah" is similar-sounding to 'Kuda']).

(d) Rav Acha b'rei de'Rava would grind a total of one handful of all the ingredients together - whereas Rav Ashi would prepare as much as he could hold between the small finger and the thumb of each ingredient individually.

(a) Rav Papa claimed to have tried both of the above methods, but neither worked. He learn the recipe that ultimately did work - from an Arab.

(b) The Arab instructed him to fill the small vessel ('Kuza') - with water.

(c) And he had to leave the spoonful of honey the night before adding it to the water and drinking it - hanging in the courtyard under the stars.

(a) The Beraisa says - that the following six things are good for a sick person: cabbage, spinach, a dry pennyroyal plant, and an animal's stomach, womb and lobe of the liver.

(b) Yesh Omrim (Rebbi Nasan) add small fish - which are also conducive to conceiving children (see Rabeinu Chananel), besides being good for one's general health.

(c) The say also says - that the following ten things are bad for a person who is recovering from an illness, and restores him to his ill-health: ox-meat, fatty meat, roasted meat, bird's meat, a roasted egg, cress, having a haircut or a bath, cheese and liver.

(d) Some add nuts. Others add - cucumbers.

(e) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael explains - that cucumbers are called 'Kishu'in because they are 'hard' for the body like swords.

(a) The Beraisa rules ...
1. ... that a Yisrael who is receiving a haircut from a Nochri - must look in the mirror.
2. ... that if a Nochri is receiving a haircut from a Jewish barber - the latter must stop before he reaches the B'luris (the long hair at the back) ...
(b) ... because the B'luris is a form of idolatry.

(c) The Reisha of the Beraisa cannot be speaking in a public place - because then it would be permitted to have a haircut anyway (as we learned in our Mishnah), and he would not need to look in the mirror.

(d) Although it is speaking in a Reshus ha'Yachid, it is nevertheless permitted - if he uses a mirror, because, (seeing as, in those days, it was only important people who would use mirrors) - doing so would give him the air of an important person.

(a) Rav Chana bar Bizna lamented that he had only himself to blame if the Nochri barber who was giving him a haircut in the pathways of Neherda'a, would cut his throat in the process - because he had contravened the words of Rebbi Meir, who forbade having a haircut from a Nochri.

(b) He specifically cited Rebbi Meir and not the Rabbanan - because he considered the pathways of Neherda'a to have the Din of a Reshus ha'Rabim (in this regard), since many people traversed them.

(a) We just learned that a Jewish barber is obligated to desist before he reaches the Nochris' B'luris. Rav Malkiyah Amar Rav Ada bar Ahavah defines 'before' as - three finger-breadths on all sides.

(b) According to Rav Chanina Brei de'Rav Ika, the author of 'Sh'fod', 'Shefachos' and 'Gumos' is Rav Malkiyo; of 'B'luris' (our case), 'Eifer Makleh' and 'Gevinah', Rav Malkiya. According to Rav Papa, whichever case deals with a Mishnah or Beraisa, is Rav Malkiya, whereas whatever is just a plain Machlokes Amora'im, is Rav Malkiyo. The Si'man to remember this by) 'Masnita Malk'sa' (which literally means that the Mishnah or the Beraisa is a queen), reminds us that the word 'Masnita' ends with an 'a', just like 'Malkiya').

(c) They are then arguing over 'Shefachos', which is a Mishnah. Consequently, according to Rav Papa, it must be Rav *Malkiya* who said it (and not Rav *Malkiyo*, as Rav Chanina Brei de'Rav Ika maintains).




(a) Our Mishnah - forbids drinking wine of Ovdei-Kochavim and deriving any benefit from it.

(b) The same applies to vinegar - that was originally wine, Hadrianic earthenware and Oros Levuvin.


1. Hadrianic earthenware is - earthenware that exudes wine when it is soaked in water.
2. 'Oros Levuvin' are - skins that have a hole in the location of the heart, because it was a form of idol-worship to cut a hole in the skin (whilst the animal was still alive) and remove the heart via the hole.
(d) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies the prohibition of Oros Levuvin - permitting them if the hole was elongated (rather than round).
(a) Rebbi Akiva - permits a piece of flesh before it is taken before Avodas-Kochavim, but forbids it after it is brought out (because it has presumably been used for sacrificial purposes).

(b) The Tana Kama, on the other hand - forbids doing business with a Nochri before he travels to visit a distant Avodah-Zarah (because a. he will go and thank his god for the deal, and b. he will purchase something to sacrifice to him.

(c) According to Rebbi Meir, leather flasks and earthenware jars of Nochrim which contain wine belonging to a Yisrael are Asur be'Hana'ah, so are their grape-skins and pits and so are fish-fat and cheeses from the village of Beis Unaiki. The Chachamim however, maintain that ...

1. ... leather flasks and earthenware jars which contain wine belonging to a Yisrael - are only forbidden to eat, but not be'Hana'ah.
2. ... their grape-skins and pits - are forbidden as long as they are wet, but not once they have dried.
3. ... fish-fat and cheeses from the village of Beis Unaiki - are only forbidden to eat, but are not Asur be'Hana'ah.
(a) When Rebbi Yishmael asked Rebbi Yehoshua why the Chachamim forbade Nochri cheese, he ascribed it the fact that they matured in the stomach of a Neveilah. Rebbi Yishmael had a problem with this however, based on a ruling of Rebbi Meir - who permits someone who is not disgusted by doing so, to suck the stomach of an Olah, because he considers the contents of the stomach of an Olah to be no more than waste (which does not have any Kedushah) ...

(b) ... how much more so ought this to be true of the stomach of a Neveilah, seeing as the Isur of Neveilah is less stringent than that of an Olah (inasmuch as it is neither Asur be'Hana'ah nor subject to Me'ilah).

(c) The Chachamim disagree with Rebbi Meir in this point. They hold 'Ein Nehenin ve'Lo Mo'alin' (not because they disagree with him on principle, but) - because they maintain that at least there is an Isur de'Rabbanan involved.

(d) When Rebbi Yehoshua then attributed the Isur to the fact the cheeses matured in the stomach of calves of Avodah-Zarah, Rebbi Yishmael objected - on the grounds that if that were so, why are they not then Asur be'Hana'ah?

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua did not want to divulge the real reason for the Isur, as we shall learn later. 'Hishi'o le'Davar Acher' means - that he changed the subject.

(b) So he asked Rebbi Yishmael how he read the Pasuk "Ki Tovim Dodecha mi'Yayin" or "Ki Tovim Dodayich mi'Yayin". The basic difference between the two versions is - whether Yisrael were saying it to Hashem, or vice-versa.

(c) If the word read "Ki Tovim Dodayich mi'Yayin", which is how Rebbi Yishmael read it - then it would have been Hashem telling Yisrael how much their 'friendship' means to Him (which explains why Yisrael said just before that ''Yishakeini mi'Neshikos Piyhu").

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua refuted this explanation however - on the basis of the following Pasuk "le'Rei'ach Shemanecha Tovim" which can only have been said by K'lal Yisrael (due to the end of the Pasuk "al Kein Alamos Ahevucha").

(a) Rabah bar Avuhah learns the Isur of Yayin Nesech from the Pasuk "Asher Cheilev *Zevacheimo* Yocheilu Yishtu *Yein* Nesicham" - that Yayin Nesech is Asur be'Hana'ah, like a sacrifice to Avodah-Zarah.

(b) And from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Va'yitzamdu le'Ba'al Pe'or Va'yochlu *Zivchei* *Meisim*" - that a sacrifice to Avodah-Zarah is forbidden like a Meis (a corpse).
2. ... "Va'tamas *Sham* Miriam" and "Ve'arfu *Sham* es ha'Eglah ba'Nachal" - that a Meis is Asur be'Hana'ah, like the Eglah Arufah.
(c) And we know that the Eglah Arufah is Asur be'Hana'ah - because the Torah uses the term 'Kaparah ("Kaper le'Amcha Yisrael") regarding it, indicating that it is forbidden like Kodshim.
(a) The difference between a Pikadon of Jewish wine and other Isurim in the hands of a Nochri is - that the former requires two seals (since we are otherwise afraid that, in his eagerness to serve his god, he will break open the seal to pour out some wine, and later replace it with a forged one).

(b) We learned in our Mishnah that Nochri vinegar is Asur if it was initially wine. The problem with this ruling is - why we would have thought that wine that was already Asur might become permitted.

(c) We answer this Kashya by inferring - that it would be permitted if it had never been wine (because Nochrim do not tend to pour vinegar in honor of their Avodah-Zarah). Consequently, vinegar that is a Pikadon in the hands of a Nochri requires only one seal.

(d) We are not however, afraid that, if there is only one seal, he will break the seal to exchange the vinegar for an inferior quality vinegar, and replace it with a forged one - because he will not go to such lengths only for the sake of a financial gain.

(a) Rebbi Ila'a rules - that boiled wine in the hands of a Nochri, that was originally not boiled - is forbidden.

(b) Rebbi Ila'a is coming to teach us - that Nochri vinegar that was not originally wine only requires one seal (based on the same logic as the previous case).

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