ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 31
(a) Rebbi Asi ... in the name of Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira lists three
categories of forbidden wine. Besides forbidding Yayin Nesech be'Hana'ah, he
also attributes to it the stringent Tum'ah of a K'zayis, meaning - that it
is Metamei be'Masa (by carrying) and be'Ohel ...
(b) ... because a sacrifice of Avodas-Kochavim is compared to a Meis (as we
(c) S'tam Yeinam (which Chazal decreed on account of Yayin Nesech) differs
from Yayin Nesech - inasmuch as it is only Metamei food and drink (but not a
person and vessels), with a Revi'is (like other liquids [and not a
(d) The third category of forbidden wine is - wine that one deposited by a
Nochri, which is forbidden to drink, but Mutar be'Hana'ah.
(a) The Mishnah in D'mai rules that if someone deposits his fruit with a
Nochri - what he receives is considered to be the Shevi'is and Ma'asros of
the Nochri (because we assume that he switched them for his own inferior
(b) Rebbi Asi ... in the name of Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira does not also
suspect that the deposit that he receives from the Nochri really belongs to
the Nochri, who switched the Yisrael's fruit for his own - because he is
speaking when the Yisrael designated a corner in the Nochri's Chatzer, from
whom he received the key or made a seal for the casks.
(c) The problem with this answer is - that if that is so, why is the owner
not also permitted to drink the wine?
(a) This Kashya is based on an episode with Rebbi Yochanan, who arrived in
P'rod, and immediately asked - whether anyone knew of a Beraisa quoted by
(b) Rebbi Tanchum from P'rod quoted him a Beraisa - which permits someone
who deposits wine by a Nochri (which obviously speaks when he designated a
corner in the Nochri's Chatzer) to drink the wine.
(c) When Rebbi Yochanan responded with the Pasuk in Koheles "Makom she'Yipol
ha'Eitz, Sham Yehei", he cannot have meant it literally - because it implies
that a Talmid-Chacham remains in the town where he takes up residence,
whereas bar Kapara was no longer alive.
(d) So what he meant was - that the fruit of the tree is to be found close
to where the tree was - referring to the Talmid-Chacham's Talmidim, who
quote his sayings even when he is no longer alive.
(a) To solve the current problem, we cite a Beraisa, where Rebbi Eleizer
permits someone who purchases or rents a room in the Chatzer of a Nochri,
which he fills with casks of wine (assuming that he has the key or the
seal), to drink the wine. The Chachamim - forbid it.
(b) Rav Asi ... in the name of Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira now holds like the
Rabbanan, and the Beraisa of bar Kapara, like Rebbi Eliezer.
(c) Rav Chisda rules - like Rebbi Eliezer.
(a) According to Rebbi Elazar, the only thing that requires two seals when
deposited by a Nochri is - wine.
(b) Rebbi Yochanan maintains - that even wine is permitted with one seal.
(c) Initally, we suggest that they do not actually argue, because each one
goes according to a different Tana - Rebbi Yochanan, like Rebbi Eliezer, and
Rebbi Elazar, like the Rabbanan.
(a) In the second Lashon, Rebbi Elazar permits everything when there is a
seal within a seal, except for wine, whereas according to Rebbi Yochanan -
wine too, is permitted with two seals.
(b) They are now arguing - over the opinion of the Rabbanan.
(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan - the Rabbanan argue with Rebbi Eliezer when
there is only one seal, but concede that the wine is permitted when there
are two. Whereas in the opinion of Rebbi Elazar, they argue even when there
are two seals.
(a) Rava describes a seal within a seal. According to him, to constitute a
seal within a seal, if one were to overturn ...
1. ... a large bowl over a cask of wine - one would need to seal the cask of
wine, and cement the bowl to the walls of the cask.
(b) And if one placed a knotted skin flask of wine inside a leather sack -
one would need to turn the flask upside down inside the sack and knot the
2. ... a basket over a cask of wine - to seal the cask and to ensure that
the basket fits tightly over the top of the cask (even though it is not
(c) Alternatively, one could achieve a seal within a seal even without the
sack - by turning the knot inside the flask and then tying another knot on
top of it.
(a) The residents of the towns Ein Kushi and Bark'sa were - Kutim.
(b) Initially, the Chachamim forbade the wine that came from there (not
because the Kutim's wine was considered Yayin Nesech, but) - because of the
various Nochri villages in the vicinity (as will be explained shortly).
(c) Ultimately - they forbade open casks, but permitted sealed ones.
(d) Initially - they assumed that the Kutim were simply nonchalant about the
Nochrim touching the wine, even if the casks were sealed. Ultimately
however, they realized that they were particular about the Nochrim breaking
open the seals and touching the wine, and were only careless there where the
casks were not sealed in the first place.
(a) The Beraisa rules - that if someone sends a cask of wine with a Kuti or
of fish-juice or of fish-hash with a Nochri - he is only permitted for him
to eat if he subsequently recognizes the seal.
(b) We are afraid that in the case of the cask of ...
1. ... wine - the Kuti will allow a Nochri to touch the wine.
(c) We are not afraid of sending the latter two with a Kuti - who is not
suspected of exchanging the contents of the casks (or of adding to them).
2. ... fish-juice - the Nochri will exchange it for the fish-juice of
non-Kasher fish (not that he will add wine, which is more expensive than the
3. ... fish-hash - he will add wine.
(d) The problem concerning the closed casks of Kutim is - that a little
earlier we permitted closed casks in the hands of Kutim, whilst here we
(a) Rebbi Yirmiyah rejects Rebbi Zeira's explanation, permitting the casks
of Kutim in town, whilst establishing the current Beraisa specifically
whilst the Kuti is traveling - on the grounds that the casks must have first
been transported in order to arrive in town, so how do they become
(b) Rebbi Yirmiyah therefore establishes the case of 'S'tumos Mutaros' by
'bein ha'Gitos', meaning that they have not yet left the area of the vat,
and the reason that they are permitted is because, seeing as everyone passes
there, the Kuti is afraid to let a Nochri open the seal and touch the wine,
in case someone sees this happening.
(a) According to Rami bar Chama Amar Rebbi Yitzchak, the Chachamim forbade
Nochri beer (see Tosfos DH 'Mipnei Mah') because of Chasnus - meaning due to
the fear of intermarriage (which can easily result from drinking together
with Nochrim and meeting their daughters there).
(b) Rav Nachman - maintains that they forbade it only if it was left
uncovered (like wine), for fear that a snake may have drunk from it, leaving
its poison inside.
(c) He cannot be referring to the beer in the cask ...
1. ... in which it is made - since we tend to leave it open Lechatchilah.
(d) What he must therefore have meant was - that they would leave the water
which would later be added to the cask of beer, open.
2. ... into which it is poured - for the same reason.
(a) We think that beer that matured ought to be permitted - because beer
that contains water from which a snake drank will not allow the beverage
into which it is poured to mature.
(b) We answer that it is nevertheless forbidden - because we decree old beer
on account of fresh beer.
(c) Rav Papa would take the beer outside the store and drink it there,
whilst Rav Achai - used to take it home and drink it there.
(d) They based their respective leniencies - on the fact that the basic Isur
is because of a fear of intermarriage, which is virtually nonexistent once
the beer is removed from the store.
(e) Rav Papa and Rav Achai argue - on the extent of the concession to drink
outside the pub.
(a) When Rav Shmuel bar Bisna arrived in Margu'an, he refused to drink,
when they offered him ...
1. ... wine - because they were not particular about the Yayin Nesech of
(b) Rav permitted Nochri beer, though Chiya his son, he said declined to
drink it. The problem with this is - that either it is permitted (for Chiya
bar Rav, too), or it is forbidden (for everyone else, too).
2. ... beer - because he decreed beer on account of wine.
(c) We conclude - that, according to Rav, Chiya his son did not drink Nochri
beer for fear that a snake drank from it, leaving its venom inside.
(d) Nevertheless, everyone else drank it with impunity - because the
sharpness of the hops all but neutralized the snake venom, only Chiya bar
Rav was affected by it because he was ill, and in his weak state, the snake
venom would have caused him grievous harm (or perhaps it would even have
(a) According to Shmuel, all rodents contain poison - only, that of other
rodents is incapable of killing, whereas that of a snake kills.
(b) Shmuel addressed - Chiya bar Rav as 'bar Arya' (son of a lion).
(c) He quoted the latter's father as having said - that 'those fat Nochrim
would drink beverages that had been left uncovered and survive, because the
rodents that they ate caused their bodies to become hot, and this served as
an antidote to the snake venom.
(d) Rav Yosef forbid the vinegar made from beer of Nochrim - because they
tended to add wine-dregs.
(e) Rav Ashi permit the same product, if it comes from the storehouse -
because wine dregs added to beer over a long period of time, will cause the
beer to go off.