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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Avodah Zarah 57



(a) When a Nochri in Biram was descending a palm-tree brandishing a Lulav - he inadvertently touched some wine with the Lulav.

(b) Rav ruled there - that the wine could be sold to Nochrim.

(c) When Rav Kahana and Rav Asi queried Rav from his own ruling, forbidding wine that is touched by a day-old Nochri (who certainly did not touch it intentionally), he replied - that he only forbade drinking the wine, but not be'Hana'ah (as they had assumed).

(a) An Eved Cana'ani whom one purchased from a Nochri, who subsequently performed Milah but not Tevilah - remains a Nochri.

(b) In discussing their Halachos, the Beraisa equates B'nei ha'Shefachos with them, to teach us that - even though they grew up in the house of a Yisrael, they still require Milah and Tevilah.

(c) We are forced to say that the mothers of the latter group had not Toveled - because if they had, their children would have been Geirim automatically, and would not have required Tevilah.

(a) The Beraisa cites two opinions whether the spittle of these Avadim and whatever they sat on in the street is Tamei or Tahor. The significance of the word 'ba'Shuk'(in the street) - is that whereas the Tum'ah under discussion is only a Safek in their private domain, it is Vaday (due to Takanas Chachamim who decreed Tum'as Zav on all Nochrim) in the street.

(b) The reason of the opinion that holds Tahor is - because Avadim who have had Milah but not Tevilah are rare, and we have a principle that whenever something is unusual, Chazal did not decree on it.

(c) The Tana then says - that whether the wine that they touch is Yayin Nesech or not, will depend on whether they are Gedolim or Ketanim.

(d) The Tana defines 'Gedolim' - as big enough to understand what it means to worship idols, and Ketanim' - as too small to grasp it.

(a) We query Rav from the Din of Ketanim in the Beraisa - on the understanding that the distinction between Gedolim and Ketanim pertains to Avadim that one purchased from Nochrim as well as to the B'nei ha'Shefachos.

(b) We answer that in fact, it pertains exclusively to the B'nei ha'Shefachos (for the reason that we explained earlier).

(c) And 've'Chein' (equating the two cases) - pertains to 'Rokan u'Medrasan ba'Shuk, Tamei' (but not to 'Yeinan').

(d) The problem with this according to the opinion that their spittle and what they sat on is Tahor - is that if by Avadim, these are Tahor, then it goes without saying that they are Tahor by B'nei Shefachos. So why did the Tana find it necessary to mention them (or it ought to have said 'Avadim she'Malu ve'Lo Tavlu, Rokan Tahor; B'nei Shefachos she'Malu ve'Lo Tavlu, Yeinam, Gedolim ... ').

(a) According to them, 've'Chein' comes (for the inference) to compare Avadim that one purchased from a Nochri to B'nei ha'Shefachos, there where they performed both Milah and Tevilah, to teach us that the former, like the latter, do not render wine that they touched Asur.

(b) Otherwise, we might have thought that, seeing as they were brought up as Nochrim and among Nochrim, we suspect them of making Yayin Nesech even after they become Geirim.

(c) This comes to preclude the opinion of Rav Nachman Amar Shmuel - who rules that Avadim whom one bought from a Nochri, and who had already made Milah and Tevilah, continue to render the wine that they touch, Asur, until such time as Avodah-Zarah is no longer on their lips.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi translates this into a time period of - twelve months.




(a) Rava asked Rav Nachman (with regard to Shmuel's ruling, declaring the wine of Nochrim Nesech even after they have performed Milah and Tevilah) from the same Beraisa that we have just been discussing. The Tana, which forbade the Avadim's wine, specifically stated 'Malu ve'Lo Tavlu' - implying that in a case of Malu ve'Tavlu, the wine would be permitted.

(b) To answer the Kashya, Rav Nachman establishes 'Malu ve'Lo Tavlu' - by the B'nei ha'Shefachos (but the wine of Avadim that he purchased from Nochrim, was Asur even by Malu ve'Tavlu [see also Tosfos DH 'Tirg'ma', and 'Ha Kamashma-Lan').

(c) He explained 've'Chein B'nei ha'Shefachos' - to refer to the Din of 'Rokan u'Medrasan'.

(d) According to the opinion that holds 'Tahor', he explained 've'Chein ... ' to mean 'Avadim Dumya di'B'nei Shefachos', meaning - that just as there, Gedolim render wine that they touch, Nesech, but not Ketanim, so too, do Avadim that one purchased from a Nochri, to preclude ...

(e) ... the opinion of Rav, who holds that even a one-day old baby makes Yayin Nesech.

(a) When a certain Nochri asked a Jewish storekeeper whether he had any wine in stock, and he replied in the negative - the Nochri placed his hand inside a bucket of wine, and asked whether that was not wine.

(b) The Yisrael react reacted angrily - by picking up the bucket and emptying its contents into a barrel.

(c) Rava permitted selling the barrel of wine to a Nochri.

(d) Rav Huna bar Chin'na and Huna bar Rav Nachman disagreed. So - Rava's men blew Shofros to announce that the wine was permitted be'Hana'ah, and Rav Huna bar Chin'na and Rav Huna bar Nasan's men blew Shofros to announce that it was Asur.

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