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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Avodah Zarah 66



(a) Everyone agrees that if old Yayin Nesech or Terumah wine falls on to (split) grapes, the criterion is Nosen Ta'am. If fresh Yayin Nesech falls on to grapes, Abaye forbids the grapes with a Mashehu - because he goes after the taste, and since the grapes and the grape-juice share the same taste, even a Mashehu forbids (though this is not how we will rule later in the Sugya).

(b) Rava still requires a Nosen Ta'am - because he goes after what it is called, and since one is called grapes and the other, grape-juice, it requires a Nosen Ta'am.

(c) Assuming that our Mishnah, which forbids split grapes into which Yayin Nesech fell, is speaking about fresh wine, Abaye's problem with establishing it by a Mashehu (to reconcile it with his opinion) is - the Seifa ('Zeh ha'Kelal ... '), which indicates that the Shiur in our Mishnah is Nosen Ta'am, and not a Mashehu.

(d) So Abaye establishes our Mishnah - by old Yayin Nesech.

(a) If wine vinegar and beer vinegar, or a wheat dough and a barley dough, one of which is Chulin, the other, Terumah, get mixed up, Abaye requires Nosen Ta'am - because, as we learned earlier, Abaye goes after the taste (both Lehachmir and Lehakel).

(b) Rava too, is consistent, and goes after the name, both Lehachmir and Lehakeil. Consequently, in this case (seeing as both beverages are called vinegar, and both Doug's too, share the same title), the one will forbid the other with a Mashehu.

(a) The Mishnah in Orlah rules that three different kinds of the same species of spice (e.g. three kinds of pepper) or of three different species of spices forbid and combine. The case is - when each one was not sufficiently strong to spice the dish on its own.

(b) Abaye explains the Mishnah by citing Chizkiyah. In order to explain why the three different species combine, Chizkiyah establishes the Mishnah - when all the spices are sweet, in which case, the sweet tastes combine to sweeten the dish.

(c) This leaves us with a Kashya on Rava however, who answers by establishing the Mishnah in Orlah like Rebbi Meir. Rebbi Yehudah quoting Rebbi Meir, learns from the Pasuk "Lo Sochal Kol To'evah" - that all Isurim in the Torah combine to make up the required Shiur.

(d) Rava's answer does not tie up at all with Chizkiyah - who does not establish the Mishnah in Orlah like Rebbi Meir.

(a) Everyone agrees that, if vinegar of Isur falls into wine of Heter, the Shiur is 'Nosen Ta'am' - because vinegar and wine share neither the same taste nor the same name, in which case it is 'Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno'.

(b) In the reverse case however, Abaye holds 'be'Mashehu' - because a. the moment the wine reaches the vicinity of the vinegar, it adopts the smell of vinegar, and b. he maintains that wine that tastes like wine, but smells like vinegar is considered vinegar (because we go after the smell [making this a case of 'Miyn be'Miyno']).

(c) Rava, on the other hand, holds - that wine that tastes like wine, but smells like vinegar is considered wine (in which case it is 'Miyn be'she'Eino Miyno').




(a) Everyone agrees that it is all right for a Nochri to smell the 'bas Tiyha' of a Yisrael (see Tosfos DH 'Oved-Kochavim'). 'bas Tiyha' is - a wine barrel with a small hole in it to smell whether the wine is still good or whether it is about to turn into vinegar (see also Tosfos DH 'bas Tiyha').

(b) Abaye forbids a Yisrael to smell the bas Tiyha of a Nochri however - whereas Rava permits it.

(c) The basis of their Machlokes is whether 'Reicha Milsa Hi' (Abaye) or 'Reicha La'av Milsa Hi' (Rava).

(a) Rava derives his opinion from a Mishnah in Terumos, where the Tana rules that Chulin bread that is baked in an oven that was heated with cumin of Terumah - is permitted to Zarim.

(b) Abaye rejects Rava's proof from there however - seeing as there, the substance of Isur has already been burned (which is not the case by 'bas Tiyha').

(c) The bread is not Asur for having been heated with fuel of Terumah - since Terumah is not Asur be'Hana'ah.

(a) The Mishnah in Terumos discusses someone who removes bread from the oven and places it on a barrel of Terumah-wine. Rebbi Meir forbids the bread to Zarim, whereas Rebbi Yehudah - permits it.

(b) Rebbi Yossi is lenient by wheat bread, but strict by barley bread which, he claims, tends to draw liquids more than wheat-bread.

(a) According to Rav Mari - Rebbi Meir holds 'Reicha Milsa Hi', and Rebbi Yehudah, 'Reicha La'av Milsa Hi'.

(b) Rava agrees with Rav Mari (seeing as Rebbi Meir does definitely not hold like him). Abaye however, does not, citing Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Resh Lakish. According to Resh Lakish, in a case where the bread was ...

1. ... hot and the barrel open - even Rebbi Yehudah would agree that the bread is Asur to Zarim.
2. ... cold and the barrel shut - even Rebbi Meir would agree that the bread is permitted to Zarim.
(c) And the Tana'im argue - in a case where either the bread is hot and the barrel shut, or the bread is cold and the barrel, open.

(d) Abaye now considers his opinion to be unanimous - because he compares 'bas Tiyha' to hot bread and an open barrel.

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