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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
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Avodah Zarah 15


(a) Is a Nochri permitted to allow his animal to work on Shabbos?

(b) On what grounds do we initially refute the suggestion that the prohibition of selling a large type animal is because one might come to lend a Nochri the animal or rent it to him?

(c) In that case, Rami b'rei de'Rav Yeiva concludes, the prohibition must be based on Nisyoni.
What is 'Nisyoni'?

(d) What is the punishment of 'Mechamer Achar Behemto' on Shabbos?

(a) We will learn in a Mishnah later that one is permitted to rent a house to a Nochri in Chutz la'Aretz, but not for residential purposes.
Why is that?

(b) How does Rav Shisha b'rei de'Rav Idi try to prove from there that Sechirus is not Koneh (renting does not acquire)?

(c) How do we reject this proof.
Why might the prohibition stand even if Sechirus *is* Koneh?

(a) What does the Mishnah in Terumos say (as regards feeding Terumah) in the case of ...
  1. ... a Yisrael who hires a cow from a Kohen?
  2. ... a Kohen who hires a cow from a Yisrael?
(b) What do we finally prove from there?

(c) From where do we know that She'eilah is not Koneh either?

(d) What is the outcome of the Sugya? How many reasons do we have to forbid selling a large animal to a Nochri?

(a) Rav Ada permitted the sale of a donkey through an agent.
Why was he not afraid of ...
  1. ... Nisyoni?
  2. ... She'eilah and Sechirus?
(b) What did Rav Huna reply when Rav Chisda queried his sale of a cow to a Nochri?

(c) How will Rav Huna then explain the Mishnah's prohibition of selling a large animal?

Answers to questions



(a) In a Mishnah in Shevi'is, Beis Shamai forbid the sale of a cow that is designated for plowing.
To whom may one not sell it?

(b) Why do Beis Hillel then permit it?

(c) On what grounds does Rabah (or Rava) reject the proof from there that we rely on a Tzad Heter to permit a sale which would otherwise be forbidden? In what way is the Isur of Shevi'is less stringent than Shabbos in this regard?

(a) Abaye counters Rabah's Kashya with a Beraisa (regarding the sale of a field, which, unlike a cow, is subject to 'Shevisah'). Beis Shamai forbid the sale of a plowed field in the Sh'mitah-year.
Why is that?

(b) What do Beis Hillel say?

(c) Rav Ashi cites a Mishnah in Shevi'is, which lists a plow-share and all its accessories among the implements that one may not sell to someone who is suspected of breaking the laws of Sh'mitah.
Why is this a Kashya on Rabbah?

(a) So what conclusion does Rav Ashi draw from all this?

(b) How do we then justify Beis Hillel's Heter to sell a plowed field to a suspect in the Sh'mitah? What grounds could there possibly be in purchasing a plowed field for anything other to sow it?

(c) What then, is the only case out of the above, which is forbidden because there is nothing on which to rely?

(a) What did Rabah reply when Abaye ...
  1. ... queried his sale of a donkey to a Yisrael who was suspected of selling such items to Nochrim?
  2. ... asked him why he was not concerned that the Yisrael would sell it to a Nochri?
(b) Abaye then cited a Beraisa.
What does the Tana say about leaving animals with ...
  1. ... Nochrim in their inns or handing them to their shepherds? Is there any difference between leaving a male animal with a woman and a female animal with a man, or vice-versa?
  2. ... Kutim in *their* inns or handing them to their shepherds?
(c) Why the difference?

(d) Another Beraisa permits selling a small type of animal to a Kuti, subject to Minhag.
What can we infer from that as regards selling him a large animal?

(a) Why does the Beraisa forbid ...
  1. ... being alone with a Nochri?
  2. ... giving one's children to him for schooling or to teach them a trade?
(b) What is the Din as regards the above in the case of Kutim?
(a) What does the Tana say about ...
  1. ... selling a Nochri weapons and their handles?
  2. ... sharpening his weapons?
  3. ... selling him stocks, fetters and chains?
(b) What is the reason for all these prohibitions?

(c) The Beraisa lists Kutim together with Nochrim in connection with the above prohibitions. Bearing in mind that Kutim are not suspect on murder (as we learned above), what is the reason for this?

(d) What has Rabah proved conclusively from this Beraisa?

(a) We attempt to refute Abaye's Kashya on Rabah however, by differentiating between Kutim and Yisre'elim who are suspect.
What distinction might there be between them?

(b) We repudiate this distinction however, with a statement of Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah.
What did he say in this matter?

(c) What is our conclusion? Was Rabah justified in selling the donkey to the suspect Yisrael, or not?

(d) How did Rabah react to this conclusive proof that he had erred?

(e) Did he catch the purchaser?

(a) What did Rav Dimi bar Aba say about selling to a Jewish robber?

(b) What is the problem with this ruling?

(c) So how do we establish it?

(d) The Tana Kama in a Beraisa forbids selling a Nochri, shutters.
What is the reason for that?

(e) In that case, why is it permitted to sell him wheat and barley, seeing as it too, keeps him alive?

(a) What does 'Yesh Omrim' say?

(b) What reason does the second Lashon give for the prohibition?

(c) And what does the Yesh Omrim say to that?

(d) Like whom is the Halacahah?

(a) Rav Ada bar Ahavah forbids selling them thick lumps of iron.
Why is that?

(b) How did Rav Z'vid then explain the fact that one is permitted to sell them gardening implements, such as hoes and adzes?

(c) On what grounds did they permitted selling all of the above to the Persians?

Answers to questions

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