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Avodah Zarah 38

AVODAH ZARAH 36 - Mr. and Mrs. David and Gerti Kornfeld have dedicated this Daf in honor of the Bat Mitzvah of Eliana Chana Farber of Raanana, Israel -- Mazal Tov to her and to her parents, Steve and Lynn Farber! May Eliana be blessed with the strength and determination to follow her illustrious grandmother, Mrs. Esther Farber, in her dedication to Torah and Yiddishkeit.


(a) According to the version learned in Sura, Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak Amar Rav precludes any food that can be eaten raw from the Din of Bishul Akum. What is the Pumbedisian version of Rav's ruling

(b) The ramifications of this Machlokes are small fish, mushrooms and porridge.
According to which opinion are they permitted?

(c) Rav Asi Amar Rav preludes small salted fish from Bishul Akum.
Why is that?

(d) Does this mean that they cannot be used for Eruv Tavshilin (when Yom-Tov falls on Friday)?

(a) What is 'Kasa de'Harsena'?

(b) Why does Rav Yosef need to inform us that if a Nochri prepared a dish of Kasa de'Harsena, it is forbidden?

(c) What did Rav B'runa Amar Rav say regarding the (cooked) locusts that they found in a field which a Nochri had set alight?

(d) Why do we initially reject the suggestion that Rav's ruling was based on the fact that the owner did not know which locusts were Kasher and which were not?

(a) What did Rav Chanan bar Ami ... Amar Rebbi Yochanan say about the ear of an animal's head that a Nochri singed to remove the hair?

(b) By the same token, if they knew which locusts were Kasher, why in the previous case, did Rav forbid them?

(c) Then why did Rav issue his ruling specifically where a *Nochri* set fire to the field?

(a) Based on Rav Chanan bar Ami ... Amar Rebbi Yochanan's previous ruling (permitting the ear of an animal's head which a Nochri singed to remove the hair), what did Ravina say about a Yisrael who placed a pumpkin in an oven in which a Nochri had placed a piece of wood to dry, before the Nochri lit it?

(b) Why did Ravina need to say this? Why is it not automatically understood?

(a) What does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel say about a Yisrael who placed a piece of meat on the stove to cook and a Nochri came and poked it?

(b) This ruling would be obvious if the meat would have cooked anyway. Does this mean that Shmuel is speaking when it would not otherwise have cooked at all?

(c) What can we extrapolate from Rebbi Asi Amar Rebbi Yochanan, who ruled that once meat reaches the stage of Ma'achal ben D'rusa'i it is no longer subject to Bishul Akum? What is 'Ma'achal ben D'rusa'i'?

(d) How do we reconcile this with Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel's ruling?

(e) We cite a Beraisa that corroborates Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel's ruling. The Beraisa permits a man to place meat on the coals and to go off to Shul whilst a Nochri turns it over.
What similar case does the Tana present concerning a woman?

Answers to questions



(a) On what grounds did Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak rule leniently regarding meat which a Nochri began to roast and a Yisrael then turned it over?

(b) This ruling is corroborated by a statement by Rabah bar bar Chanah (or his brother Rav Acha) Amar Rebbi Yochanan.
What did he say in this regard?

(c) Ravina rules that whether the Nochri lit the oven and the Yisrael baked the bread or vice-versa, the bread is permitted.
Which third case did he incorporate in this ruling?

(a) Chizkiyah permits a fish that is salted by a Nochri, and bar Kapara an egg that is boiled by him.
What is the reason for this latter ruling?

(b) What does Rebbi Yochanan rule in both these cases?

(c) When Rav Dimi arrived from Eretz Yisrael, he too, cited Rebbi Yochanan in the same way as we just did.
Who permitted the salted fish and the roasted egg according to him?

(d) What did Rebbi Chiya Parva'ah rule, based on Rav Dimi's version, when the Resh Galusa's men asked him about an egg roasted by a Nochri?

(e) What happened to poor Rav Z'vid, when he countered Rebbi Chiya Parva'ah's ruling with that of Abaye, who ruled like Rebbi Yochanan?

(a) What does the Beraisa say about the flowers of a caper-bush, leek with heads, a mixture called 'Metalya, boiling water and roast ears of corn of a Nochri? What common ruling pertains to all of these?

(b) If the first three are permitted, because they can be eaten raw, which additional reason pertains to the last two?

(c) Another Beraisa equates Metalya with P'shalya and with Shi'asa. According to Rabah bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan, the recipe for P'shalya came from Egypt forty years earlier.
What did Rabah bar bar Chanah himself say? Is he arguing with his Rebbe?

(d) It consists of a mixture of parsley, flax and fenugreek seeds.
In what does one initially soak them?

(a) Eventually, the mixture is placed in new barrels which one fills with water into which one places the mixture which has been soaked in clay, until it sprouts from the clay.
On what occasion does one eat the shoots?

(b) What effect does it have on the person who eats it?

(c) Why might we have even thought that it is forbidden because of Bishul Akum?

(d) They claimed that the shoots will grow from it by the time that one emerges from the bathhouse. In this connection, Rav Ashi quoted a brief comment by Rebbi Chanina.
What did the latter mean when he said ...

  1. ... (according to the first version) 'Milin'?
  2. ... (according to the second version) 'be'Milin'?
(a) The Beraisa forbids Kuspan (the waste of dates that were used to make beer, which one then places in boiling water) of Nochrim, which is prepared in a large cauldron, but permits it if it is prepared in a small one.
Why is that?

(b) On what grounds do we refute Rebbi Yanai's definition of a small cauldron as one whose neck is too narrow to fit a small bird?

(c) So how do we amend Rebbi Yanai's definition?

(d) And how do we reconcile this Beraisa with another Beraisa which permits Kuspan even if it was prepared in a cauldron with a wide neck?

(a) On what grounds did Rav Safra object to Rav Sheishes' ruling forbidding cooked oil? Why was he not worried ...
  1. ... that they may have added non-Kasher ingredients?
  2. ... about Bishul Akum?
  3. ... that the pot may have been used for T'reifus?
(b) When they asked Rebbi Asi about cooked dates, the only problem he saw was with dates that were neither sweet nor bitter.
What would he have ruled assuming they were ...
  1. ... sweet?
  2. ... bitter?
(c) So what was the problem?

(d) In replying to those who posed the She'eilah, he quoted his Rebbe, who forbade them.
Who was his Rebbe?

(a) Rav argued with Shmuel and Levi regarding Shesisa'ah (a dish made from flour of roasted grains of corn or from lentils) made by a Nochri. Under which circumstances would vinegar be added to the mixture?

(b) Rav permitted it, whereas Shmuel's father and Levi forbade it. According to the first Lashon, they argue over a Shesisa'ah of lentils that is made with water.
What will be the Din ...

  1. ... when it is made with vinegar?
  2. ... regarding Shesisa'ah that consists of corn?
(c) The second Lashon is more stringent than the first. What, according to that Lashon, is ...
  1. ... accepted as being forbidden?
  2. ... the point over which they are arguing?
(d) Among the things that Barzilai ha'Gil'adi sent David when he fled from Yerushalayim, "Kali" is listed twice.
How does Rav explain this.
(a) Our Mishnah lists cooked dishes to which one sometimes adds wine, among the things that are forbidden to eat but Mutar be'Hana'ah.
What does Chizkiyah say about cooked dishes that are known to contain wine?

(b) Why is this different than Muryas, which is included in the same list, according to the Rabbanan, even though most people add wine (and it is as if one knew for sure that wine had been added)

(c) Rebbi Yochanan permits the cooked dishes even if one knows for sure that they contain wine.
Why is this different than Muryas according to Rebbi Meir, which is Asur be'Hana'ah?

Answers to questions

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