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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Avodah Zarah 42


(a) After the Shifchah of a certain Meitzik (tough guy) in Rimon threw her miscarriage into a pit, a Kohen came and peeped into the pit to ascertain whether the baby was a boy or a girl.
Why did he do that?

(b) On what grounds did the Chachamim declare the Kohen, Tahor?

(c) What problem does this create with our Sugya, which holds 'Ein Safek Motzi mi'Yedei Vaday'?

(d) How do we therefore amend the statement ...

  1. ... 'she'Hitilah Nefel le'Bor'?
  2. ... 'Leida Im Zachar Im Nekeivah'?
    What do we have to add to that?
(e) How else might we answer the Kashya, without amending the Beraisa at all? Why might it be considered a case of 'Vaday Motzi mi'Yedei Vaday'?
(a) How will Resh Lakish (who permits Avodas-Kochavim that broke by itself) explain our Mishnah 'Matza Tavnis Yad ... Harei Eilu Asurin'?

(b) What does the Beraisa say about the Avodah-Zarah of a Nochri being nullified by ...

  1. ... another Nochri?
  2. ... a Yisrael?
(c) Abaye reconciles Resh Lakish with this latter statement by establishing the Beraisa by Pachsah (with a 'Samech').
What does 'Pachsah' mean?

(d) How does Abaye reconcile this with the Mishnah later 'Pachsah af-al-Pi she'Lo Chasrah, Batlah'?

(a) According to Rava, Pachsah is considered Bitul min ha'Torah, even at the hands of a Yisrael.
Then how does he explain the Beraisa which does not acknowledge the Bitul of a Yisrael?

(b) Why did the Rabbanan issue such a decree?

(c) What is 'Mar-Kulis'?

(d) What does the Beraisa say about a Nochri who brings stones from Mar-Kulis and uses them to pave roads or theaters?

(a) Why does the Beraisa forbid the same case if the stones are brought by a Yisrael?

(b) What is the basis of the decree in this case? What are we afraid of?

(c) What would the Din be if a Nochri were to nullify the Avodah-Zarah of a Yisrael?

(a) What does the Beraisa rule in a case where an Avodah-Zarah is filed down ...
  1. ... by a Nochri for the shavings?
  2. ... by a Nochri to enhance the appearance of the Avodah-Zarah?
  3. ... by a Yisrael?
(b) Rebbi Yossi in a Beraisa permits an Avodah-Zarah made of metal that a Yisrael grinds and scatters in the wind or casts in the sea.
What do the Chachamim say? What is their source for this?

(c) What does Rebbi Yossi ben Yasian say about someone who finds an image of Darkon (in the shape of a dragon) with its head cut off, assuming ...

  1. ... it is a Safek whether a Yisrael did it or a Nochri? Why is that?
  2. ... we know for sure that a Yisrael did it?
(d) Why is the Avodah-Zarah Asur in all of these cases, according to Resh Lakish?
(a) The Tana Kama in a Mishnah later will permit planting vegetables underneath an Asheirah (a tree that is worshipped) in the winter, when the shade of the tree is bad for the growing vegetables.
On what basis does Rebbi Yossi disagree?

(b) What reason do we initially give to explain why the fallen leaves do not fall under the category of an Avodah-Zarah that broke by itself, in which case, according to Resh Lakish, Rebbi Yossi ought not to have forbidden the vegetables?

(c) How do we refute this answer (based on the Beraisa that we learned a little earlier, with regard to the Avodah-Zarah from which the Nochri took shavings for himself)?

(d) So how does Rav Huna b'rei de'Rav Yehoshua reconcile Resh Lakish with Rebbi Yossi in the Beraisa?

Answers to questions



(a) The Beraisa rules with regard to a bird's nest that is perched on top of a tree of Hekdesh 'Lo Nehenin ve'Lo Mo'alin'.
If one is forbidden to benefit from it, why is there is no Me'ilah if one did?

(b) What does the Tana suggest one does with a nest that is perched on top of an Asheirah-tree that one needs as firewood?

(c) Why can one not simply climb the tree and take it down?

(a) What does Resh Lakish ask on Rebbi Yochanan from this Beraisa? What was the source of the twigs for the nest, according to him?

(b) We answer that the nest was made of twigs that the bird brought from elsewhere.
How do we prove that from the Reisha?

(c) This seems to prove Rebbi Yochanan right.
How does Resh Lakish counter this? If the wood came from the Hekdesh tree itself, why is there no Me'ilah?

(a) Rebbi Avahu Amar Rebbi Yochanan explains the Seifa 'Yatiz be'Efrochim'. What does he mean by that?

(b) Why does he decline to learn like the first answer (that the bird made the nest out of wood that came from elsewhere)?

(c) How does he then establish the Reisha?

(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan, why does the Seifa switch to the case of the fledglings? Why does the Tana not teach us the Din of the nest regarding Asheirah?

(b) So why did the Tana not insert the nest of the Asheirah-tree together with that of a Hekdesh-tree?

(c) What is then the Chidush in the Seifa, seeing as the nest is indisputably Mutar be'Hana'ah?

(a) What does our Mishnah say about someone who finds vessels with a picture of the Mazel of the sun, the moon or Darkon painted on them (see Maharam)?

(b) Why must the author be the Chachamim in the previous Mishnah and not Rebbi Meir (see Maharam)?

(c) What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(a) What does the Beraisa say about someone who Shechts an animal in the name of seas, rivers, mountains, hills, deserts, the sun, the moon, or the Mazalos?

(b) What other two items does the Tana include in this list?

(c) How does Abaye then explain why our Mishnah includes only the three things that it does?

(a) What do we mean when we say 'Rav Sheishes Mankit Chumri Masniyasa'?

(b) One such Beraisa permits all Mazalos except for those of the sun or moon.
What does the Tana say about ...

  1. ... (images of) faces?
  2. ... all images? Which is the only one that is forbidden?
(a) What makes us think that the above Beraisa is not referring to somebody who *makes* one of the images listed there? What do we learn from the Pasuk in Yisro "Lo Sa'asun Iti"?

(b) Which four images does this Pasuk incorporate?

(c) On the other hand, what problem do we have with the middle section (of faces [based on our Mishnah]) by establishing the Beraisa by when he *finds* it?

(d) So we re-establish the Beraisa by someone who *makes* the image, and the Drashah of "Lo Sa'asun Iti" goes like Rav Huna b'rei de'Rav Yehoshua (see Sugya 42b).
What does he say about the four images?

Answers to questions

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