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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Avodah Zarah 43

AVODAH ZARAH 43 (23 Nisan) - dedicated by Mr. Avy Reichman of Queens, NY, l'Iluy Nishmas his father, Dovid ben Avraham, on the day of his Yahrzeit.


(a) What do we infer from the Pasuk "Lo Sa'asun Iti ... " (in connection with the image of Darkon)?

(b) Then how do we establish the Seifa of Rav Sheishes' Beraisa 've'Chol ha'Tzuros Mutaros Chutz mi'Tzuras Darkon'?

(c) How does Abaye deal with the Kashya 'Reisha ('Mazalos') ve'Seifa ('Tzuros') be'Motze, u'Metzi'asa ('Pirtzufin') be'Oseh'?

(d) Rava establishes the Beraisa entirely by 'Motze', and he establishes the Metzi'asa according to Rebbi Yehudah, who adds 'D'mus Menikah ve'Sar Afis' to the list of found vessels with pictures that are prohibited.
What is ...

  1. ... 'D'mus Menikah'?
  2. ... 'Sar Afis'?
(e) What must each of the two pictures include in order to be prohibited?
(a) How does Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar describe 'Darkon'? What must it have between its joints?

(b) Rebbi Asi demonstrated exactly which joints the Tana was referring to. Which joints indeed?

(c) Is the Halachah like Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar?

(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah related an episode that occurred with Rebbi Yeshoshua ben Levi who once saw Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar 'B'rivi' find a ring with the picture of Darkon painted on it, in the street.
When did he pick it up?

(b) What does 'B'rivi' mean?

(c) What did the latter do when ...

  1. ... he passed a little Nochri boy?
  2. ... the Nochri whom he asked to nullify it, refused?
(d) Besides the fact that a Nochri can even nullify his friend's god, and that he can be forced to nullify it against his will, what third thing do we learn from there?
(a) Rebbi Chanina expressed great surprise at Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar, based on a Beraisa.
What does the Beraisa say about someone who saves a lost article from the clutches of a lion ... , a torrential river, a tidal wave, or who finds it on a major thoroughfare?

(b) What did Rebbi Chanina therefore think?

(c) How does Abaye reconcile Rebbi Elazar ha'Kapar with that Beraisa?

(d) What makes the owner believe that, even a Yisrael finds it, it will still be worshipped?

(a) How did Raban Gamliel used to test the witnesses who came to testify that they had seen the new moon on Rosh Chodesh?

(b) What problem do we have with that, based on the Pasuk "Lo Sa'asun Iti"?

(c) How does Abaye reconcile Raban Gamliel with this Pasuk? To which sort of image is the Pasuk referring?

(a) The Beraisa forbids making a replica of the Heichal, the Ulam and the Azarah.
How about making a replica of the Shulchan or the Menorah?

(b) Under which circumstances is the latter permitted?

(c) What about making a Menorah of other metals besides gold?

(d) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi is even more stringent.
What does he say?

(a) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah proves his point from the fact that, at a time of poverty, the Chashmona'im made a Menorah of wood.
How did the Chachamim counter that? What was that Menorah really made of?

(b) And what did the Chashmona'im do when they became ...

  1. ... a little more wealthy?
  2. ... more wealthy still?
(c) We just permitted pictures of the sun and moon, because they cannot be copied here on earth.
How does Abaye reconcile this with the Beraisa which forbids making a replica of the servants who serve before Hashem (the four creatures that support Hashem's Throne, as we explained earlier)?
Answers to questions



(a) According to what we just learned, it appears that a human face alone is permitted, yet the Beraisa that we discussed on the previous Daf specifically forbids it.
What source did Rav Huna b'rei de'Rav Idi learn from Abaye to forbid it?

(b) And how does Abaye reconcile Raban Gamliel with the Beraisa forbidding all those that serve before Hashem, such as the Ofanim, the Serafim, the Chayos ha'Kodesh and the other angels?

(c) And how does he reconcile this with the Beraisa that Darshens the Pasuk in Yisro "Asher ba'Shamayim mi'Ma'al", 'Lerabos Chamah u'Levanah ... '?

(d) What do we then learn from the same Pasuk ...

  1. ... "Asher ba'Aretz"?
  2. ... "mi'Tachas"?
(a) Abaye is forced however, to retract from his interpretation of Raban Gamliel, by a Beraisa.
Which four items does the Tana incorporate in "Lo Sa'asun Iti" that prove Abaye wrong?

(b) So how does Abaye finally explain the pictures on Raban Gamliel's black-board?

(c) Then why did Shmuel instruct Rav Yehudah to destroy the picture that someone had made for him on his signet ring?

(d) That is why the Beraisa forbids someone with a signet-ring with a protruding picture to wear it. What does the Tana say about ...

  1. ... using it to stamp in wax?
  2. ... wearing and stamping with a signet-ring if the picture is sunken?
(a) What was unusual about the Beis-ha'K'nesses in Shaf ve'Yasiv, the Shul where Shmuel's father and Levi used to Daven? In which town was that Shul situated?

(b) If, as we just explained, the Chachamim are afraid of 'Mar'is ha'Ayin' (with regard to idol worship), how could Shmuel's father and Levi Daven there?

(a) Raban Gamliel was only an individual.
How could *he* have pictures of the phases of the moon in his attic? Why was he not afraid of 'Mar'is ha'Ayin'?

(b) Alternatively, we answer, 'di'Perakim Hava'i'.
What does this mean?
How does it answer the Kashya?

(c) How else do we answer the basic Kashya on Raban Gamliel, based on the Pasuk in Shoftim "Lo Silmad La'asos ke'To'avos ha'Goyim ... "?

(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in our Mishnah qualifies the prohibition of vessels with a picture of the sun, the moon or of Darkon.
What sort of vessels does he permit?

(b) According to Rav, if the picture is above the level of the water, it falls under the category of Chashuv, whereas if it is below that, it is considered 'inferior'.
What does Shmuel consider the above two types of vessels to be?

(c) Then what kind of vessels fall under the category of Chashuv, according to him?

(d) In the Beraisa that supports Shmuel, which two items does the Tana add to cauldrons, pots and kettles, that fall under the category of 'inferior'?

13) Rebbi Yossi in our Mishnah, permits grinding a god made of metal and scattering it in the wind.
What do the Chachamim say? Which Pasuk do they quote in support?

Answers to questions

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