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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Avodah Zarah 50


(a) The Beraisa 'Avanim she'Nashru min ha'Markulis, Nir'os Imo Asuros, she'Ein Nir'is Imo, Mutaros ... ' implies that the stones were seen falling off Markulis.
How does Rava amend this, to conform with Rebbi Yochanan, who learns that if it is known that the stones fell from the big Markulis, they are forbidden under all circumstances, according to all opinions?

(b) Rebbi Yishmael says in a Beraisa 'Shenayim bi'Tefisah Lo, Asuros'. What does 'bi'Tefisah Lo' mean?

(c) And what does he say about three stones?

(d) What problem does this Beraisa create with our Mishnah?

(a) Rava solves the problem by establishing our Mishnah by one Tefisah, and our Mishnah by two Tefisos.
What does 'two Tefisos' mean?

(b) In which case do the Rabbanan and Rebbi Yishmael in the Beraisa argue?

(a) How do we reconcile Rebbi Yishmael's description of two or three stones next to each other, with the Beraisa, which specifically describes 'Markulis' as two stones next to each other and one going across the top?

(b) What happened to Yanai ha'Melech's obsolete palace? What did some Nochrim set up there, and others take apart? What did they then do with its stones?

(c) Some Chachamim walked along these roads, others did not.
Why did Rebbi Yochanan opt for the lenient opinion? How did he refer to Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Sima'i?

(d) Why did he refer to him as B'nan shel Kedoshim?

(a) The reason of those Chachamim who declined to walk along those roads was based on the D'rashah of Rav Gidal ... Amar Rebbi.
What did he learn from the Hekesh of Zivchei Meisim to Meisim in the Pasuk in Tehilim "Va'yitzamdu le'Va'al Pe'or Va'yochlu Zivchei Meisim"? What are Zivchei Meisim?

(b) According to this, how do we categorize the stones of Markulis?

(c) In that case, on what grounds do the Chachamim who permit it, disagree?
Why should the stones not be Asur?

Answers to questions



(a) When Rabah bar Yirmiyah arrived in Rav Yosef bar Aba's town, he cited a Beraisa.
What distinction did the Tana draw there between stones of Markulis that a Nochri brought and paved the roads and the highways with, and those that were brought and paved by a Yisrael?

(b) What did Rabah bar Yirmiyah mean when he added 've'Leis Nagar u'bar Nagar de'Yifrekineih'?

(c) What did Rav Sheishes comment on that?

(a) Another Beraisa that Rabah bar Yirmiyah cited, when he came to Rav Yosef bar Aba's town, permitted Hasla'ah (removing worms from a tree) in the Sh'mitah-year, as well as Zihum. What is 'Zihum'?

(b) How do we reconcile this with 'Mezavlin, which the Sugya in Mo'ed Katan forbids?

(c) What does the Tana say about ...

  1. ... performing these two Melachos on Chol-ha'Mo'ed?
  2. ... 'Gizum' in the Sh'mitah-year or on Chol-ha'Mo'ed? What is 'Gizum'?
(d) The Tana adds 've'Sachin Shemen li'Gezom'.
What does this mean? When is it permitted?

(e) Why are Hasla'ah, Zihum and Sichah permitted on Shevi'is?

(a) With regard to this Beraisa too, Rabah bar Yirmiyah refers to a discrepancy that is 'insoluble'.
Why can the problem not have been the fact that ...
  1. ... 'Masli'in u'Mezahamin' are permitted in the Sh'mitah, but forbidden on Chol-ha'Mo'ed?
  2. ... Zihum is permitted in the Sh'mitah-year, whereas Gizum is forbidden?
(b) We also reject the suggestion that the problem lies in the Heter to make Zihum in the Sh'mitah, whereas another Beraisa appears to clash with this. In what connection does the Tana there say 'Mezahamin es ha'Neti'os, ve'Korchin Osan (wraps them), ve'Kotmin Osan (cuts them) ve'Osin Lahem Batim (a wall surrounding the tree which one fills with earth) u'Mashkin Osan'?
Until when is this permitted?

(c) What is the Chidush? Why might we have otherwise that it is forbidden already before the Sh'mitah?

(d) What can we extrapolate from there that appears to clash with the Beraisa cited by Rabah bar Yirmiyah?

(a) And we answer this with a statement of Rav Ukva bar Chamah.
What did Rav Ukva mean when he referred to two kinds of Kishkushi Ilni? What does 'Kishkushi' mean?

(b) How does this help us answer the discrepancy regarding Zihum?

(c) So we suggest that it is 'Sachin Shemen' that is the source of Rabah bar Yirmiyah's problem.
What does the Mishnah in Shevi'is say about anointing young figs, and making holes in them and filling them with oil?

(d) Like we learned earlier, this suggests that in the Sh'mitah itself, it is forbidden (whereas the Beraisa earlier permitted anointing after Gizum). How do we reconcile the two seemingly contradictory rulings?

(a) Rav Sama b'rei de'Rav Ashi finally explains that Rabah bar Yirmiyah's problem lies in the prohibition of Zihum on Chol-ha'Mo'ed on the one hand, and the Heter of Sichah on Chol-ha'Mo'ed on the other.
Why is this a problem?

(b) How do we answer Rabah bar Yirmiyah's Kashya?

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav discusses an animal that one worships with a stick. What does he mean by that?

(b) What do we learn from "Zove'ach la'Elohim Yocharam Bilti la'Hashem Levado", about someone who worshipped an Avodah-Zarah using one of the Avodos in the Beis-Hamikdash?

(c) And what do we learn from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Eichah Ya'avdu ha'Goyim ha'Eileh"?

(d) What would the Din therefore be in our case, if the animal ...

  1. ... was not worshipped with a stick at all?
  2. ... was worshipped by throwing a stick in front of it?
(a) What distinction does Rav make in our case between someone who breaks a stick in front of the Avodah-Zarah and someone who throws it?

(b) What is breaking the stick similar to?

(c) Abaye asked Rava why, by the same token, one is not Chayav for throwing the stick (seeing as it is similar to Zerikah).
What did Rava reply?

(a) What does the Beraisa say about someone who feeds an animal of Avodah-Zarah dung or pours out a pot of urine in front of it (even if it is not normally worshipped in that way [see Tosfos])?

(b) How does Rava reconcile Rav, who exempts someone who throws a stick in front of an Avodah-Zarah, with this Beraisa (which obligates someone who feeds the animal dung, even though it is not normally broken into pieces)?

Answers to questions

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