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1) [line 1] ME'HIPARCHYA L'HIPARCHYA - from one district (at the northern-most part of Eretz Yisrael) to another [adjacent] district (in Syria)
2) [line 1] EIN MISTAKRIM - We may not make a profit from...
4) [line 5] B'ASREI D'REBBI ELAZAR BEN AZARYAH SHECHI'ACH MISHCHA - in the place where Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah lived, oil was abundant
5) [line 9] MASRI'IN AL PERAKMATYA [SHE'HUZLAH] - it is permitted to make a public prayer gathering [to beseech HaSh-m for help] when merchandise has cheapened so much [that the livelihood of the people is at stake]. This is permitted even on Shabbos, when such activities are normally prohibited because they are not in the joyful spirit of Shabbos.
6) [line 9] KELEI FISHTAN - linen garments
8) [line 11] ELA IM KEN AMDU SE'ASAYIM B'SELA - unless [inflation has increased so much that] two Se'ah [of wheat] costs one Sela.
9) [line 13] ELIMELECH MACHLON V'CHILYON - Elimelech, and his two sons, Machlon and Kilyon, were the leaders of the Jews in Eretz Yisrael. They left Eretz Yisrael when a severe famine struck the land, and they took refuge in the land of Moav. Elimelech died there (as punishment for abandoning the people of Eretz Yisrael and for deciding to settle in Moav), and Machlon and Kilyon married two Moavite women, Orpah and Ruth. Machlon and Kilyon died, too, in Moav. The widow of Elimelech, Naomi, decided to return to Eretz Yisrael. Ruth, the widow of her son, begged Naomi to permit her to return to Eretz Yisrael with her, as she sought to join the Jewish people. She became a Giyores Tzedek, and was the forebear of David ha'Melech and, ultimately, Mashi'ach.
10a) [line 13] GEDOLEI HA'DOR - the great leaders of the generation
11) [line 15] "VA'TEHOM KOL HA'IR ALEIHEN VA'TOMARNAH HA'ZOS NA'OMI." - "And all of the residents of the city were astounded, and they said, 'Is this Naomi?'" (Ruth 1:19) - The Gemara quotes this verse as a proof that Elimelech, Machlon, and Kilyon were punished (with death) for leaving Eretz Yisrael. It is not clear, though, what the proof is. The MAHARSHA explains that the proof is that the people exclaimed, "Look at Naomi, and see what has befallen her! As punishment for leaving Eretz Yisrael, her husband and sons were killed!" (See MAHARSHA, RASHASH.)
12) [line 16] CHAZISEM - look! (The MAHARSHA says that the Gemara is reading the word "ha'Zos" in the verse as "Chazos.")
13a) [line 18] AD D'LO SHACHIV SHICHVA - before the dead one dies
14) [line 19] IVTZAN - Ivtzan was one of the Shoftim who served as the leaders of the Jewish people from the time that the people entered Eretz Yisrael until the time that a king was anointed. Ivtzan, from Beis Lechem, served as the Shofet of the Jewish people from the year 2785 until 2792 (975-968 BCE) (Shoftim 12:9), almost one hundred years before Shaul was anointed as the first king. The Gemara here identifies Ivtzan as Boaz, who married Ruth, and who was the forebear of David ha'Melech.
15) [line 20] MISHTA'OS - festive meals. The RASHBAM explains that the two festive meals for each child were the festive meal of the Eirusin, and the festive meal of the Nisu'in (the seven days of feasting being counted as one long festive meal). RABEINU GERSHOM explains that the two festive meals were the festive meal at the time of the child's birth, and the festive meal at the time of his or her wedding.
16) [line 20] "VA'YEHI LO SHELOSHIM BANIM, U'SHELOSHIM BANOS SHILACH HA'CHUTZAH, U'SHELOSHIM BANOS HEVI L'VANAV MIN HA'CHUTZ. VA'YISHPOT ES YISRAEL SHEVA SHANIM." - "And he (Ivtzan) had thirty sons, and thirty daughters, whom he sent out [to the homes of their husbands], and took in thirty daughters from outside [of his house, i.e. the houses of their fathers,] for his sons. And he led Yisrael for seven years." (Shoftim 12:9)
17a) [line 22] ECHAD B'VEIS AVIV - one [festive meal] in the home of his
18) [line 23] UV'CHULAN LO ZIMEN ES MANO'ACH - and he did not invite Mano'ach to any of them
19a) [line 23] KUDNA AKARAH - a barren mule
20a) [line 24] B'CHAYACH D'YALADT SHITIN - If you gave birth to sixty
[children who will die] during your lifetime,
21) [line 25] ICHPAL V'OLID CHAD DEMI'SHITIN ZARIZ - (a) take another [wife] and give birth to one who will be more successful than the sixty. This refers to Ivtzan/Boaz, whose sixty children died during his lifetime, whereupon he married Ruth and gave birth to Oved, from whom David ha'Melech was descended (RASHBAM); (b) have more [children] and you will give birth to one who will be more successful that the sixty. This refers to Mano'ach, who eventually gave birth to Shimshon, who was more successful than Ivtzan's sixty children (RABEINU GERSHOM)
22) [line 25] (SIMAN MELECH AVRAHAM ESER SHANIM SHE'NIFTAR NISNASEI LEVADO) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following statements that were made by Rav Chanan bar Rava in the name of Rav:
b) [line 27] PLONI ALMONI - the relative who was one step closer than Boaz to be a Go'el for the family of Elimelech and Machlon
24a) [line 27] NACHSHON BEN AMINADAV - Nachshon ben Aminadav, a righteous
man, was the Nasi of Shevet Yehudah during the Exodus from Egypt and the
sojourn in the desert
25) [line 30] V'SIMANICH: TAMEI TAMEI, TAHOR TAHOR - and the mnemonic is: Tamei Tamei (i.e. the name of the mother of the Tamei, defiled, person -- Haman -- was a Tamei animal, the raven), Tahor Tahor (i.e. the name of the mother of the Tahor, pure, person -- Avraham Avinu -- was a Tahor animal, the lamb)
26) [line 32] LI'TESHUVAS HA'MINIM - as a response to the heretics (who question what the name of Avraham's mother was, etc.)
27) [line 33] NECHBASH - was imprisoned
30) [line 34] IVRA ZE'IRA D'KUSA - (a) the place called Ivra Ze'ira, in Kusa (RASHBAM); (b) the small pass of Kusa (RABEINU GERSHOM)
31) [line 34] UR KASDIM - Ur of the Chaldeans, the name of a city in Bavel. It was there that Avraham Avinu was thrown into a fiery furnace by Nimrod in response to his belief in HaSh-m.
32) [last line] B'SHURAH - in the line in which people stand at a funeral and comfort the mourners.
33) [line 1] SEFINAH - a boat
36) [line 3] REISH GARGUSA - (a) the head well-digger (RASHI to Berachos 58a); (b) the appointed official who oversees the distribution of water for the farmers from the communal irrigation pits (RASHBAM here)
37) [line 5] SUBIN - bran flour (coarse flour that still has the bran in it); figuratively, this refers to something of inferior quality
38) [line 7] "B'ZA'AKECH YATZILUCH KIBUTZAYICH..." - "When you cry out, your colleagues will save you..." (Yeshayah 57:13) - The Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "When you cry out on behalf of your colleagues (those who are gathered with you), you will be saved" (see RASHBAM, RABEINU GERSHOM, MAHARSHA)
39a) [line 9] MA'OS B'ZOL U'FEIROS B'YOKER - money is cheap, and produce is
40) [line 11] (SIMAN SELA PO'EL CHARUVA TALYA AMRIN) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following statements that were made by Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Elazar regarding the things that they remembered from earlier times:
42) [line 13] HAVU NEFISHEI NEFICHEI CHAFAN - there were many [people who died from being] bloated from famine
43) [line 14] TEVERYA - Tiberias, a city built by Herod Antipas (son of King Herod) in honor of the emperor Tiberias Julius Ceasar Augustus (Bereishis Rabah 23:1) approximately fifty years before the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash
44) [line 14] MID'LEIS ISAR - because of a lack of money (Isar = a small Roman coin that is the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar, which is 6-8 Perutos)
45) [line 15] KAD LO HAVU MISGARYAN PO'ALAYA - when workers could not be hired
46) [line 15] L'MIDNACH KARTA, ME'REI'ACH PITA MAISIN - [to work] to the east of the city, because of the smell of bread that killed (either because the smell was so divine that it caused the people's souls to leave them, or because the people suffered such severe hunger that the smell of the bread caused their souls to leave them)
47) [line 17] KAD HAVAH BATZA YENUKA CHARUVA - when a child would split a carob
48) [line 17] V'HAVAH NAGID CHUTA D'DUVSHA AL TREI DERA'OHI - and a line of honey (from the carob) would flow down his two arms
49) [line 19] KAD HAVAH NATIL ORVA BISRA - when a raven would take some meat
51a) [line 22] TALYA - a young man
53a) [line 25] D'MISRACHITZ ALEIHON - they who place their trust upon them
54) [line 26] "[BENEI SHELAH VEN YEHUDAH... V'YOKIM V'ANSHEI CHOZEVA] V'YO'ASH V'SARAF [ASHER BA'ALU L'MO'AV V'YASHUVI LACHEM; VEHA'DEVARIM ATIKIM.]" - "[The sons of Shelah, the son of Yehudah were... Yokim, the men of Kozeva,] Yo'ash and Saraf [who presided over Mo'av, and Yashuvi-Lachem; these matters are based on ancient traditions.]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 4:21-22) - The Gemara here asks why Machlon and Kilyon are represented by different names (Yo'ash and Sarah) in this verse. The Gemara later will expound the rest of this verse.
55) [line 28] SHE'NISYA'ASHU MIN HA'GE'ULAH - for they despaired of the redemption [from the famine] (RABEINU GERSHOM)
56) [line 29] SHE'NISCHAIVU SEREIFAH LA'MAKOM - for they became deserving of being punished by Sereifah (burning) by HaSh-m
57) [line 31] SHE'ASU GUFAN CHULIN - for they made their bodies profane (by leaving Eretz Yisrael and entering the land of the Nochrim, which is Tamei)
58) [line 31] SHE'NISCHAIVU KELAYAH LA'MAKOM - for they became deserving of being destroyed by HaSh-m
59) [line 34] SHE'HEIKIM SHEVU'AH L'ANSHEI GIV'ON - who established an oath
for the people of Giv'on (NESINIM)
60) [line 34] KIZVU - they lied (see previous entry)
62) [line 37] "HEMAH HA'YOTZRIM V'YOSHVEI NETA'IM U'GEDERAH, IM HA'MELECH BI'MELACHTO YASHVU SHAM." - "They were the potters, who dwelled in Neta'im and Gederah, with the king in his service they settled there." (Divrei ha'Yamim I 4:23) - The Gemara will expound each part of this verse.
63a) [line 38] BENEI YONADAV BEN RECHAV - the sons of Yonadav ben Rechav.
Yonadav ben Rechav was a descendant of Yisro, who commanded his children
(Kenite converts to Judaism), and all of his descendants never to drink
wine, build a house, nor plant a vineyard, but rather to live in tents all
of their lives (for such living is conducive to longevity). His descendants
scrupulously observed the oath that they had taken to observe his command.
Indeed, the prophet Yirmeyah rebuked the Jewish people, who turned away from
the Torah and did not observe the commandments of HaSh-m, by pointing out
that these people scrupulously observed the command of their ancestor, while
the Jewish people failed to observe the commandments of HaSh-m.
64) [line 39] GADRU PIRTZOSEIHEN SHEL YISRAEL - they repaired (or "fenced-in") the breaches of the Jewish people
65) [line 40] BEN BENO SHEL BEN BENAH - the grandson of her grandson (Shlomo
was the grandson of Yishai, who was the grandson of Rus).
67) [line 41] "[U'ZRA'TEM ES HA'SHANAH HA'SHEMINIS,] VA'ACHALTEM MIN HA'TEVU'AH YASHAN; [AD HA'SHANAH HA'TESHI'IS,] AD BO TEVU'ASAH, [TOCHLU YASHAN.]" - "[You will sow in the eighth year,] and you will eat from the old crop; [until the ninth year,] until the arrival of its crop, [you will eat the old.]" (Vayikra 25:22)
68) [line 41] SALAMANTON - something that prohibits grain from growing and aging properly, as the Gemara will explain
69a) [line 42] RETZINASA - a type of grain worm
70) [line 44] AD SHE'TAVO TEVU'AH ME'ELEHA - until [new] crops grow on their own (to their full size)
71) [line 45] "VA'ACHALTEM YASHAN NOSHAN, V'YASHAN MIPNEI CHADASH TOTZI'U." - "You will eat very old grain, and you will need to remove the old [from the storehouses] because of the new." (Vayikra 26:10)
72a) [line 47] OTZAROS - storehouses (grain silos) in which grain is stored
73) [last line] KOL MILEI ATIKA MA'ALYA - every item that has aged is