ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafBeitzah 30
(a) One is obligated to make a Shinuy when carrying loads in the street.
Rava initiated various changes in Mechuza: from Duchka to Rigla, from Rigla
to Igra, and from Igra to Achpa.
1. Duchka - is a load that one carries with difficulty on one's shoulders,
such as a sack of fruit.
(b) If possible, the change should be initiated to lighten the load, to
facilitate the transportation; but if not, then it doesn't matter if the
change makes no difference, as long as it does not make it more difficult
(see also Tosfos DH 'de'Daru'). See Hagahos ha'Gra, for a completely
different interpretation of all the methods of transportation.
2. Rigla - is a pitch-fork (a Shinuy which makes carrying the sack of fruit
easier). This method of carrying is normally used for transporting a large
3. Igra - is a pole that is normally carried on the shoulders of two people
(similar to that used by the spies).
4. Achpa - means to carry that same pole in their hands.
(c) If one is carrying a load that is normally carried be'Achpa - one
spreads a cloth over the top.
(d) If one invited a lot of guests, and needed to carry a lot of barrels, or
for some other reason the Shinuy is not possible, then one may go ahead and
transport the food without it.
(a) Women used to draw and subsequently carry, the water in the regular
jars, without making a Shinuy. They did not draw it ...
1. ... in smaller ones - because that would have entailed more journeys (see
Tosfos Dh 'de'Malya' - who points out that earlier, we permitted this for
the needs of a Shinuy).
(b) Nor did they cover the jars ...
2. ... in larger ones - one increases the burden.
1. ... with a wooden lid - because then it would need to be tied, in which
case we are afraid that the knot comes undone and they inadvertently re-tie
it. Consequently, it is better without it.
2. ... with a cloth - for fear that it becomes soaked, and they
inadvertently wring it out.
(a) Clapping hands together or against one's thigh and dancing, are
forbidden on Shabbos or Yom-Tov. Nevertheless, one does not stop people from
doing it - because of the principle 'Mutav she'Yihyu Shogegin ve'Lo Yihyu
Mezidin' ('It is better that one transgresses be'Shogeg than one does so
(b) Abaye proves this from women - who used to sit with their barrels in
between the posts that marked the entrance to the Mavoy (which is normally
forbidden mi'de'Rabbanan, for fear that, not seeing them, as one does from
the outside), one may come to carry out of the Mavoy into the street.
(c) The principle of 'Mutav she'Yihyu Shogegin ... ' also extends to Isurim
d'Oraysa - such as Tosfos Yom Kipur (around half an hour before Sheki'ah).
Note: According to the Poskim, it does not apply to something that is
written *explicitly* in the Torah.
(a) A Muktzah (so called because it is pushed away - like a Muktzah object
on Shabbos and Yom-Tov - behind the house) - is a kind of storage-yard for
wood and other objects that are not in current use, .
(b) The Seifa of the Mishnah appears to be self-contradictory - first it
says 'u'Maschilin be'Ormas ha'Teven', implying that this Tana does *not*
hold of Muktzah, and then it continues 'Aval Lo be'Eitzim she'be'Muktzah',
implying that it *does*.
(c) We establish the entire Mishnah either like Rebbi Shimon, or like Rebbi
Yehudah. We establish ...
1. ... either (even) the Seifa like Rebbi Shimon - since it speaks about a
case of a Muktzah of valuable objects, because even Rebbi Shimon concedes
'Muktzah Machmas Chesaron Kis'.
(d) It speaks however, about rotten straw that also contains thorns, and is
unfit to be used even for cement.
2. ... or (even) the Reisha like Rebbi Yehudah - since it speaks about a
case of rotten straw, which is no longer fit for animals (only for fire-
(a) One may not take fire-wood from the S'chach of a Sukah on the Yom-Tov of
Pesach of Shavu'os - because it constitutes 'S'tiras Ohel' (demolishing a
(b) We initially interpret the Heter of 'Ela min ha'Samuch Lah' - to refer
to the excess S'chach that lies on top of the bottom layer that covers the
(c) The problem with this is - that seeing as there no technical difference
between the bottom layer of S'chach and that which lies on top of it, the
Chiyuv of S'tiras Ohel applies equally to all the layers.
(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel establishes 'Ela min ha'Samuch Lah' by wood that
is leaning against the *wall* of the Sukah. S'tiras Ohel does not apply
there - because the wood in question is not attached to the Sukah in the way
that the wall is.
(b) Rav Menashya re-establishes the Seifa by wood on top of the Sukah - i.e.
bundles of wood, which, by virtue of the fact that one did not untie them,
are not Batel to the rest of the S'chach, and are not therefore, subject to
(a) Rebbi Shimon holds that a lamp which was lit before Shabbos is not
Muktzah, and the oil is permitted once the lamp goes out - because a person
expects his lamp to go out eventually (which is why he does not push it out
of his mind) - whereas one can hardly say that a person expects his Sukah to
(b) So, in order to fit the fallen Sukah into the same category as the lamp,
we establish it by a Sukah that was weak and threatening to collapse already
from before Yom-Tov(and which, similar to the lamp, he expected to fall).
(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa holds - that it is nevertheless Muktzah
(seeing as one was unable to extinguish it).
(a) Rav Sheshes quoting Rebbi Akiva (and Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira) Darshan
from "*Chag* ha'Sukos Ta'aseh Lecha Shiv'as Yamim" - that the wood of a
Sukah is Asur all seven days, because it adopts a certain Kedushah (like a
(b) When the Tana writes (immediately after 've'Shavin be'Sukas ha'Chag
be'Chag she'Hi Asurah') that a condition made before Yom-Tov is effective -
he refers (not to a Sukah on Sukos, as he would appear to, but) to the
statement before that which speaks about a Sukah on Peasch or Shavu'os.
(c) The Beraisa, which validates such a condition with regard to any type of
ornaments that one hangs in the Sukah *even on Sukos* - refers to the
specifically-worded condition of 'Eini Bodel Meihem' (meaning that one
retains one's juristiction over them the entire Bein-Hashemashos (in which
case they never have a chance to adopt Kedushah).
(d) Such a condition will not be effective by the wood of the Sukah itself -
seeing as the fact that he cannot possibly demolish it during Bein
Hashemashos renders the condition futile.
(a) If someone designates seven Esrogim for the seven days of Sukos (one for
each day), Rav permits each Esrog to be eaten immediately after use on the
same day. According to Rav Asi - each Esrog remains Asur until the following
(b) The Esrogim are not forbidden until after Sukos, like the wood of the
Sukah - because, whereas the Mitzvah of Sukah extends from the beginning of
Sukos until the end, that of Lulav only lasts until the end of the day; the
next day is a new Mitzvah.