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Previous dafBerachos 31
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg
and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is
devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara,
Rashi or Tosfos.)
 Gemara 31a [line 28]:
"l'Hispalel ... Ela mi'Toch Simchah *Shel Mitzvah*"
(a) The Girsa in the Re'ah, Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah and Dikdukei Sofrim #200
is mi'Toch *Devar* Simchah (without the word Mitzvah).
(b) The Girsa in Beis Nasan and Menoras ha'Ma'or is mi'Toch Simchah Shel
*Torah*; apparently this was the Girsa of Rashi DH Ela mi'Toch Simchah
 Gemara 31a [line 31]:
"Lo Yipater me'Chaveiro ... Ela mi'Toch Devar *Halachah*"
(a) The correct Girsa is Devar *Simchah* (as above Girsa #1a);
see also Hagahos ha'Gra
(b) The Girsa of the Paris manuscript is Devar *Simchah Shel* Halachah,
(which is similar to the Girsa of Rashi, see above, Girsa #1b)
 Gemara 31a [line 39]:
"Amar Lei *Mar* Vadai d'Amrei Inshei"
The word "Mar" does not appear in Dikdukei Sofrim #3 or in Sotah 46b
 Hagahos ha'Gra 31a #2
The Vilna Ga'on erased the word "v'Chen"
This word also does not appear in Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah or in Dikdukei Sofrim #400
 Gemara 31b [line 32]:
The words "v'Zu she'Lo *Kilkelah, Nifkedes*"
should be "v'Zu she'Lo *Nisterah, Nifsedes*"
This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #20 and in Sotah 26a
1) [line 1] KASA D'MOKRA - a valuable glass cup
2) [line 3] KASA D'ZUGISA CHIVARTA - a cup made of white glass (crystal)
3) [line 6] LI'SHRI LAN MAR - please sing for us
4) [line 7] D'MISNAN - that we are going to die
5) [line 7] MA NA'ANEI BASRACH - what should we sing as a response?
6) [line 8] D'MEGANU - that protect
7) [line 16] HALACHAH PESUKAH - a clear-cut Halachah which does not need
further analysis, and will therefore not disturb a person's Shemoneh Esrei
8) [line 19] SHE'AFILU RO'OS TIPAS DAM K'CHARDAL
The Halachah requires that a woman who sees even the smallest amount of
blood must count seven clean days. This is the assertion of Rebbi Zeira in
Nidah Daf 66a, who reports that Jewish women took it upon themselves to
keep the laws of a Zavah, even if they did not see blood on three
consecutive days. (See RASHI and TOSFOS Megilah 28b).
9) [line 22] U'MACHNISAH BA'MOTZ SHELAH
By Torah Law, a person is required to tithe his grain only if he harvests
it in a normal manner. This includes completing the stalk-to-grain process
in the field, piling up the grain there and bringing it through the front
door of his house. If he brings it into his house while it is still in its
chaff, the obligation to tithe the grain is only mid'Rabanan. Under such
circumstances, the Rabanan did not prohibit eating the grain in a temporary
fashion (Achilas Ara'i). Feeding an animal is termed Achilas Ara'i and is
10) [line 25] HA'MEKIZ DAM - one who lets blood
11) [line 26] MO'ALIN BO
(a) It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is
Hekdesh. This is learned from the Lav of "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sharecha
... u'Ndarecha Asher Tidor" ("You may not eat in your settlements, ... and
your pledges that you will pledge") (Devarim 12:17). The minimum amount for
which one transgresses this Lav is a Perutah's worth of benefit.
12) [line 30] KALUS ROSH - lightheadedness, flippancy
(b) If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he receives lashes and
must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from
which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c) If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its
Kedushah. He must therefore bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the
value of his benefit plus an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total, or a
*quarter* of the original value). This is true of any object that has
Kedushas Damim (i.e. it's value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that
has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the
vessels used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban) does not lose its
Kedushah under any circumstances. (see Rashi Me'ilah 8a DH Chatas ha'Of)
(d) After the blood of a Korban is thrown on the Mizbe'ach, it may be used
for any purpose, even fertilizer, as stated in Avodah Zarah 44a. Rav Ze'ira
extrapolated that if blood was let from an animal of Kodshim while it is
still alive, the Lav of Me'ilah does apply to this blood.
13) [line 38] SHE'MITOCH KACH ZOCHREHU - (a) he thereby remembers him; (b)
his Halachah will cause his friend to remember another Halachah (MAHARSHA)
14) [line 38] ALVEYEI - escorted
15) [line 39] BEI TZINYASA D'BAVEL - "Between the Palms of Bavel", the name
of a place
*16*) [line 41] ADKARTAN MILSA... - the proof of the Gemara is: a) that Rav
Kahana showed Rav Shimi the Halachah of escorting, by showing him how far
one is required to escort one's guest. The distance from Rav Kahana's house
to Bei Tzenisa corresponded to this distance (SIFSEI CHACHAMIM); (b) that
it is proper to tell one's guest a Halalchah upon parting so that the guest
will remember another Halachah and will share it with the host (MAHARSHA,
see above 13:b)
17) [line 51] "V'CHAVIN PESICHAN LEI B'ILISEI NEGED YERUSHELEM; V'ZIMNIN
TELASA V'YOMA HU BARECH AL BIRCHOHI U'METAZLEI U'MODEI ... " - "and windows
were open for him towards Yerushalayim; and three times a day he would
kneel on his knees and pray and give thanks ..." (Daniel 6:11)
18) [line 52] HUCHALAH - it began
19) [line 58] HILCHESA GIBARVASA - great laws
20) [line 59] NA'OS - move
21) [line 8] ISHAH KESHAS RU'ACH - a woman of a sorrowful spirit
22) [line 19] "SHELASECH" - "your request"
23) [line 24] TZIV'EI TZEVA'OS - hosts of hosts, multitudes of multitudes
24) [line 27] V'ESTATER (SOTAH)
(a) A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery, because she
was warned by her husband not to be alone with a certain man, and then she
violated the warning. The husband must bring his wife to the Beis
ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx.
2 quarts) of barley meal.
(b) An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the
Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water.
The portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed
(which contains numerous appearances of HaSh-m's name) was written on
parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to dissolve and
the holy name to be erased. The Sotah would drink from the water. If she
had been unfaithful to her husband, the water would enter her body and
cause her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful
to her husband, she would remain unharmed and would be blessed with
children (Bamidbar 5:11-31)
25) [line 28] PELASTER - fraud
26) [line 33] DIBRAH TORAH KI'LSHON BENEI ADAM
Every word in the Torah is holy and contains worlds of insights and
nuances. However, certain sages of the Mishnah felt that there were some
phrases recorded in the Torah which paralleled people's speech, and should
not be used for homiletics or insights. (Rav Betzalel Rensburg points out
that our case might be different from other cases of Dibrah Torah ki'Lshon
Benei Adam. We are actually dealing with the speech of a person, namely
Chanah, and people sometimes speak repetitively without the intention of
expressing two points.)
*27*) [line 35] BIDKEI MISAH - Three actions of a woman are *checked* when
her life is in danger. If she is found lacking in the laws of Nidah, Chalah
or lighting Shabbos candles, she may die. Chanah specifically mentioned
this point since she did not have any children, and the Gemara (Nedarim
64b) states that a childless person is among those who are considered as if
they were dead.
28) [line 35] DEVEIKEI MISAH - Three actions of a woman which bring death
upon (lit. *attach* death to) her.
29) [line 37] GAVRA B'GUVRIN - a man who stands out amongst men
30) [line 39] SHE'MUVLA BEIN ANASHIM - who does not stand out noticeably
amongst other men
31) [line 39] GOTZ - short
32) [line 39] ALAM - thick
33) [line 40] TZACHOR - white
34) [line 40] GICHOR - a person with a reddish complexion
35) [line 41] MOREH HALACHAH LIFNEI RABO
A person who teaches Halachos in the presence of his Rebbi demonstrates his
lack of respect for the Torah and her sages. Eli was the greatest Torah
leader of his generation, and thereby was considered the Rebbi of the
36) [line 45] KABALAH
Offering a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos"
are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the
Korban that will be thrown on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood
towards the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (throwing the blood on the Mizbe'ach).
37a) [line 47] SHIVKI LI D'I'ANSHEI - let me punish him
b) [line 48] V'YAHIV LACH RAVA MINEI - and HaSh-m will give you a son
greater than he
38) [line 54] LEISIV TA'ANISA L'TA'ANISA - he should fast on Sunday to
atone for fasting on Shabbos
39) [line 54] HETICHAH DEVARIM KELAPEI MA'ALAH - she spoke out against
40) [last line] V'ATAH HASIBOSA ES LIBAM ACHORANIS - "and You have turned
their hearts away from you" (Melachim 1:18:37). RASHI explains that Eliyahu
protested that since HaSh-m gave Bnei Yisrael the opportunity to sin by
creating the Yetzer ha'Ra, He is capable of turning their hearts back to