THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) HALACHAH: FORGETTING TO MENTION HAVDALAH IN SHEMONEH ESREH
OPINIONS: The Gemara states that one who forgot to mention Havdalah ("Atah
Chonantanu") in Shemoneh Esreh does not have to return and repeat it. At
what point in Shemoneh Esreh does he not have to go back to say Havdalah?
2) HALACHAH: IF ONE ERRED IN BOTH "HAVDALOS"
(a) The RI (cited by Tosfos 30b, DH Mistavra, and by the Rosh 4:17)
maintains that as long as one finished the blessing of "Chonen ha'Da'as,"
one does not need to recite Havdalah. If one passed the point where
Havdalah is normally inserted but did not yet finish the blessing, then he
must recite Havdalah and then return to finish the blessing.
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 294:4) rules like the RI (a). In 294:5,
the Shulchan Aruch cites the opinion of the Rosh (d) and says that if one
already finished his Shemoneh Esreh, he is permitted (but not obligated) to
repeat it in order to mention Havdalah.
(b) RABEINU ELCHANAN (ad loc.) maintains that even if one finished the
blessing, one may recite Havdalah. However, if one has already started the
next blessing, then one may *not* go back to the previous blessing and add
(c) RABEINU TAM (ad loc.) explains that only if one has finished his entire
Shemoneh Esreh does he not go back to recite Havdalah. If, however, he
remembers at any other point within his Shemoneh Esreh that he omitted
Havdalah, he must go back and recite it. (Tosfos adds that this was the
common practice in his day.)
(d) The ROSH understands Rabeinu Tam differently. The Rosh understands that
when Rabeinu Tam said that if one has not yet finished Shemoneh Esreh he
must go back, this meant that he *may* go back. That is, he is permitted,
but not obligated, to go back and recite Havdalah. The Rosh understands
Rabeinu Tam's reasoning to be that if one omitted Havdalah, he may go back
and recite it as a "Tefilas Nedavah" (see Berachos 21a). However, the Rosh
still argues in part with the contention of Rabeinu Tam and maintains that
one may return to the beginning of Shemoneh Esreh and Daven it again as a
Tefilas Nedavah *while still* in the middle of reciting Shemoneh Esreh.
Only if he finished his entire Shemoneh Esreh may he go back and Daven
again a Tefilas Nedavah, and recite Havdalah. (Regarding when one may
recite a Tefilas Nedavah, see Insights 21:2.)
QUESTION: The Gemara asks, "If one erred in both (the Havdalah of Shemoneh
Esreh and the Havdalah that is recited upon a cup of wine), what is the
Halachah?" The Gemara answers that he must go back and recite Shemoneh
What does it mean to make a mistake in the Havdalah over wine? If it means
that he did not say it, so let him say it now!
(a) TALMIDEI RABEINU YONAH explain that "erred" means that he did something
that he was not supposed to regarding the Havdalah over wine, such as
eating (or performing Melachah -- RASHBA) before reciting Havdalah (which
is forbidden, Pesachim 105a). Since he did two improper things (he omitted
Havdalah from his Shemoneh Esreh, and he ate before reciting Havdalah over
wine), the Rabanan penalize him and require him to say Havdalah in the best
way possible, over wine and in Shemoneh Esreh, and not just to go ahead and
recite Havdalah over wine.
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 294:1) rules in accordance with Talmidei
Rabeinu Yonah (a). The BI'UR HALACHAH, however, cites an argument among the
later authorities whether one must repeat Shemoneh Esreh if one already
went ahead and, without asking a rabbi what to do, recited Havdalah over a
cup of wine without repeating the entire Shemoneh Esreh.
(b) TOSFOS REBBI YEHUDAH HE'CHASID (and DIKDUKEI SOFRIM) had a different
text in the Gemara, that read, "If one erred *and did not mention
[Havdalah]* in both, what is the Halachah?" This reading of the Gemara
cannot be understood according to the explanation of Talmidei Rabeinu
Yonah. What, then, does it mean to "err and not mention" Havdalah in the
Havdalah over wine?
The OR ZARUA (Hilchos Motza'ei Shabbos 91) explains that it means that one
recited all of the blessings of Havdalah (the blessings over wine, spices,
and flame) but did not recite the blessing of Havdalah itself
("ha'Mavdil"). In such a case, one must go back and recite Shemoneh Esreh.
3) PITY ON THE MOTHER BIRD: ARE THERE REASONS FOR THE MITZVOS?
QUESTION: The Mishnah states that one who says, "Hashem's mercy reaches the
mother bird," must be silenced. The Gemara explains (in the second reason)
that this is because the Mitzvos are purely Gezeiros, "heavenly decrees
upon us to fulfill," and no mercy is involved.
How can it be that there are no reasons behind the Mitzvos? Rebbi Shimon
explicitly states (see Yevamos 23a, and other places) that all of the
Mitzvos have reasons behind them!
(a) The RAMBAM, in Moreh Nevuchim (3:26,48), explains that this opinion in
our Gemara indeed argues with Rebbi Shimon, and maintains that there are no
reasons for the Mitzvos.
(b) The RAMBAN (Devarim 22:6) explains that the Mitzvos certainly have
reasons. Our Gemara means that the reason behind the Mitzvah of sending
away the mother bird is not in order to have mercy *on the bird*. Rather,
it is a "Gezeirah" (= decree upon *us* and for our benefit), in order to
accustom us to be merciful and inculcate in us that trait. One who is
accustomed to being cruel to beasts, becomes cruel by nature in general.