THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) HALACHAH: MENTIONING HASHEM'S KINGSHIP IN "BONEH YERUSHALAYIM"
OPINIONS: The Gemara says that we mention "Malchus" in Ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv
(the fourth blessing of Birkas ha'Mazon) more than once in order to make up
for the "Malchus" which should have been said in the previous blessing,
Boneh Yerushalayim. If Boneh Yerushalayim is a blessing that is "Samuch
l'Chaverta," why does it need "Malchus?" The Gemara answers that it needs
"Malchus" because it is not respectful to mention the kingship of human
beings (that is, the Malchus of David ha'Melech) without mentioning the
Kingship of Hashem.
The TALMIDEI RABEINU YONAH ask why, then, did the Sages not simply
institute a mentioning of Hashem's Malchus in Boneh Yerushalayim itself,
instead of instituting a make-up mention for it in Ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv? They
answer that even though mention must be made of Hashem's kingship if
mention is being made of man's kingship, nevertheless it is not respectful
to mention Hashem's kingship in the same breath as man's kingship, because
it looks as if we are equating them. (So, too, writes the ROSH 7:22). The
Talmidei Rabeinu Yonah mention that there were old texts in which mention
*was* made of Hashem's kingship in Boneh Yerushalayim, but those texts were
mistaken, as is evident from our Gemara that requires mention of Hashem's
kingship to be placed in Ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv.
On Rosh Chodesh or Yom Tov, when we recite "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas
ha'Mazon in the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim, should we say "Melech" ["Ki
Kel *Melech* Chanun v'Rachum Atah" -- "for You are a gracious and merciful
*King*?"] in Ya'aleh v'Yavo or not?
(a) The AVUDRAHAM indeed writes that the word "Melech" is to be omitted
from "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas ha'Mazon for this reason. The recently
printed "MACHZOR HA'MEPHORASH" (Jerusalem, 1995) adds in the name of Rav
Yosef Chaim Zonnenfeld, zt'l, that even on Rosh ha'Shanah, "Melech" is not
recited in "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" of Birkas ha'Mazon.
HALACHAH: The custom nowadays is to say "Melech" in "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in
Birkas ha'Mazon, like the Rema (although many Sidurim put the word "Melech"
in parentheses). However, if one has a family custom not to say it, then
one should follow his family custom.
(b) The REMA (OC 188:3) writes that although the Avudraham's reasoning
behind omitting "Melech" is correct, we do not see anyone who omits it in
practice. The MAGEN AVRAHAM (OC 188:2) justifies the common practice by
suggesting that since "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" is a completely separate prayer from
Boneh Yerushalayim (even though it was instituted to be recited within that
blessing), saying "Melech" in it is not considered to be mentioning
Hashem's kingship next to man's kingship, and therefore it is permitted.
Others add that it would not be proper to recite "Ya'aleh v'Yavo"
differently in Birkas ha'Mazon from the way one recites it in Shemoneh
Esreh, and therefore it is permitted to mention Melech in Ya'aleh v'Yavo.
(c) The widely used, annual calendar in Israel records that the practice of
Minhag Yerushalayim is *not* to say "Melech" in "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in Birkas
ha'Mazon, *except* on Rosh ha'Shanah (cited in the name of the MATEH
2) QUESTION: On Shabbos, we mention "Retzeh" in Birkas ha'Mazon in the
blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim. On Rosh Chodesh, we add "Ya'aleh v'Yavo" in
the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim.
RABEINU YONAH (Daf 29a; see Insights 29:1) puts forth the rule that in the
"abridged" version of a Berachah we only mention those things that were
actual blessings in the original. If so, why do we make mention of Shabbos
("Retzeh") and Rosh Chodesh ("Ya'aleh v'Yavo") in Al ha'Michyah when those
prayers are not actual blessings in Birkas ha'Mazon?
RAV CHAIM SOLOVECHIK explains that those prayers sometimes *are* blessings
in the Birkas ha'Mazon, as our Gemara makes clear. If a person forgets to
say "Retzeh" and remembers after the blessing of Boneh Yerushalayim but
before beginning the next blessing, he recites a short blessing that makes
mention of Shabbos in lieu of "Retzeh." For that reason we include an
abridged mention of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh in Al ha'Michyah because they
are indeed abridged blessings.
Rav Chaim goes further and explains that this is the reason why we mention
Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh *after* the words "u'Vneh Yerushalayim" in Al
ha'Michyah, while in Birkas ha'Mazon we say them *before* the blessing of
Boneh Yerushalayim. These short mentions are *not* abridged versions of
"Retzeh" and "Ya'aleh v'Yavo," but rather abridged versions of the
*blessings* of Shabbos and Rosh Chodesh. Since those blessings are said
only *after* Boneh Yerushalayim, their abridged versions are said only
*after* u'Vneh Yerushalayim as well!