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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 23



(a) It is only if someone cannot hold himself back that his Tefilah is an abomination.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Hikon Likras Elokecha Yisrael", that to Daven in a state of being unprepared for Hashem (e.g. with an unclean body), is an abomination.

(c) "Shemor" - 'Guard yourself from sinning'; "Raglecha" - 'because if you do sin, you will have to go to the Beis Hamikdash to bring a Korban; "ve'Karov Li'Shmo'a" - 'Listen to (take your cue from) the Chachamim, who bring a Korban when they sin'; "mi'Teis Kesilim Zevach, Ki Einam Yod'im La'asos Ra" - 'Don't be like the fools, who bring Korbanos without knowing whether they are bringing them for the bad or for the good.

(d) Rav Papa explains the Pasuk as a warning to guard one's legs (not to emit a smell) whilst Davening.

(a) The obligation to remove one's Tefilin at a distance of four Amos refers to a 'bathroom' that has already been used (and where presumably, there is Tzo'ah).

(b) As regards a new 'bathroom', one is permitted to remove the Tefilin there before relieving oneself. However, when he has finished, he will have to take them four Amos away before putting them on again.

(c) It is forbidden to enter a used 'bathroom' with one's Tefilin -even to urinate, either because one might go on to relieve oneself, or because one might come to make a smell.

(a) According to Beis Shamai, one may not place one's Tefilin on the inside of the window-sill, because the mice, which are common inside the field (but not outside on the side of the street) might chew them.

(b) According to Beis Hillel, one takes the Tefilin inside, in one's hands.

(c) How can Rebbi Akiva say that one takes the Tefilin in his clothes, from where they can easily fall? What he must have meant is that one holds them in one's hands, but not directly, only by means of one's clothes.

(d) According to Rebbi Akiva, he places them in holes in the wall.

(e) It is better to place them on the inside (in spite of the mice) rather than the outside, because of the story of the Talmid who placed his Tefilin on the outside (like Beis Shamai). A passing prostitute found them. She then took them to the Beis ha'Medrash and told all the Talmidim there that this was what that Talmid had given her in payment for her services. When the Talmid got to hear about it, he was so embarrassed, that he jumped off the roof.
This prompted the Chachamim to make such a Takanah.

(a) Rav Meyashe comments that one should roll the Tefilin together like a scroll, and hold them in his right hand next to his heart.

(b) One should however, take care that the straps do not protrude from one's hands more than a Tefach.

(c) If there will not be time afterwards to put the Tefilin back on, then he should make a bag of one Tefach, put the Tefilin inside, and put them on the ground.

(d) In fact, even a bag of less than a Tefach is called an Ohel, and would really suffice to create an independent domain. However, if the bag was specifically made for the Tefilin, then it is almost as if it is Bateil to the Tefilin (in which case, it cannot count as an independent domain). That is why a bag made for the Tefilin needs to be at least one Tefach, which serves as a conspicuous Chatzitzah.

(a) The fact that little earthenware jars of less than a Tefach protect whatever is inside them, preventing them from becoming Tamei, is proof that even less than a Tefach can be an Ohel.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Nachman maintain that, since Chazal permitted one to take the Tefilin into the 'bathroom' and to hold them in one's hands (initially perhaps, only due to the fact that there was nobody there to hold them), then that is the best thing to do - even when there is now someone outside to hold them - since they will then protect them from Mazikin (perhaps this is on account of Midah ke'Neged Midah - someone who protects the Tefilin, will be protected by them).



6) Sleeping with Tefilin in one's hands is prohibited, because they may fall on the floor whilst he is asleep.


(a) It is forbidden to hold a Seifer-Torah or Tefilin, because it will then be difficult to concentrate on one's Tefilah, for fear that he may drop them.

(b) It is forbidden to hold a knife etc. during Davening, because one is afraid that it may fall and wound him, the money may fall and get lost, the dish may fall and all its contents will spill, and the loaf of bread may fall and get dirty. all of these will disturb his concentration, and are therefore forbidden.

(c) Rava thought that the prohibition of urinating whilst holding Tefilin must be the opinion of Beis Shamai. Why is that?
Because, if Beis Hillel permits urinating in a Beis ha'Kisei Kavua, then why should he forbid it in a Beis ha'Kisei Arai?

(d) 'Devarim she'Hitarti Lecha Kahn Asarti Lecha Kahn' means, that although urinating in a Beis ha'Kisei Kavua is permitted, urinating in a Beis ha'Kisei Arai is prohibited (not like Rava).

(a) When relieving oneself, it is permitted to uncover two Tefachim in front, but only one Tefach at the back; when urinating however, only one Tefach at the back is permitted and nothing in front, ; and that is what the Beraisa refers to, when it writes 'Devarim she'Hitarti Lecha Kahn' etc.

(b) This cannot be correct, since why should one be permitted to uncover even *one* Tefach at the back, in order to urinate.

(c) Perhaps the Beraisa which permits two Tefachim in front and one at the back refers to men, and the Beraisa which permits nothing in front, to women.

(d) This explanation too, is not acceptable, because if so, what is the Kal va'Chomer which has no answer to which the Beraisa ultimately refers? Surely the difference between men and women in this area is self-understood, and is beyond querying?

(a) Ultimately, the Kal va'Chomer does have a Teshuvah. There is good reason to forbid holding Tefilin in a Beis ha'Kisei Arai (i.e. whilst urinating), even though it is permitted in a Beis ha'Kisei Kavua (i.e. whilst relieving oneself). Why is that?
Because in a Beis ha'Kisei Arai, there is the possibility of drops falling on one's legs, which one is obligated to wipe away. For this, one needs the use of one's hands, which explains why it is forbidden to urinate whilst holding one's Tefilin.
This reason does not of course, apply to a Beis ha'Kisei Kavua.

(b) To avoid having to relieve oneself in the middle of a meal, one should make sure that one does so before the meal begins. How does one do this? By walking ten times four Amos or four times ten Amos, each time making an attempt to relieve oneself.

(c) Rebbi Chiya says that one may enter the dining-room still wearing one's Tefilin. When one is already at the table, he removes the Tefilin and puts them on the table. This is in order that they should be readily available for putting on when the time comes to Bensch.

(a) The Beraisa, which forbids the wrapping of one's money in the same bag as one's Tefilin, speaks when one designated the bag as a Tefilin-bag; whereas the Beraisa which permits it, speaks when he did not.

(b) According to Rav Chisda, who holds 'Hazmanah La'av Milsa Hi', a Tefilin-bag becomes Asur to use for mundane things if one both designated it and actually used it at least once as a Tefilin-bag.

(c) Abaye agrees with Rav Chisda that using it without designating it, does not render the bag forbidden. Designating it as a Tefilin-bag however, even without actually using it, does.

(a) Shmuel permits one to place one's Tefilin next to one's head - to protect them - even when his wife is with him.

(b) The Beraisa explicitly writes that if one is with one's wife, then it is forbidden to put one's Tefilin under one's cushion.

(c) If his wife is with him, he places the Tefilin on a ledge, which is either three Tefachim *higher* than the bed or three Tefachim *lower*.

(a) Rava maintains that looking after one's Tefilin properly overrides even a Beraisa. Therefore, he maintains, one puts the Tefilin between the pillow and the sheet, but not directly under one's head.

(b) According to the Beraisa, he puts the Tefilin-*bag* under his head, but the actual Tefilin should be arranged in such a way that they protrude from the bag, at the side.

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