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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Berachos 51



(a) Rav Chisda commented on the Sha'aleh (whether one should continue to eat without a Berachah, or whether one makes a Berachah then) that if someone has eaten garlic and stank, should he eat garlic again and make it worse? (two wrongs don't make a right!)

(b) Most people who Tovel are Ba'alei Keri, who are unable to recite the Berachah before the Tevilah, because of Takanas Ezra, so they have no choice but to recite the Berachah *after* the Tevilah. Consequently, they are initially rejected, and an initial rejection does not invalidate.
Whereas someone who forgot to recite the Berachah, cannot do so now, because initially he was *fit* to recite the Berachah, only becoming unfit *after* he has eaten (because there is nothing over which to recite the Berachah), and something which was fit and then became rejected, is invalidated.

(a) Even wine-Aspargus is extremely unhealthy if one becomes intoxicated by it.

(b) 'Re'm'at' is the acronym of '*R*osh, *M*ei'ayim *T*achtoniyos' (the bowels).

(c) Aspargus is bad for the 'Re'm'at' when the wine is old wine in its third year.

(d) 'L'a't' is the acronym of '*L*eiv, *A*yin, *T*echol' (spleen).

(a) Aspargus made with wine must be followed by bread, and that made with beer, by whatever the beer is manufactured from - figs or dates etc.

(b) So serious is the danger of not spitting after Aspargus made from beer, that one may (and even should) spit - even in front of a king.

(a) Rebbi Yishmael Kohen Gadol also learnt from Suriel that one must return the cup to the person who gave it to him.

(b) A group of demons or of destructive angels were waiting to pounce on whoever did not adhere to these rules.

(c) The third thing that the Angel of Death taught Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi was not to stand in front of the women when they return from burying a dead person.

(d) Someone who did in fact, meet a woman returning from a burial, should jump four Amos from his place, cross a river, move to another street or stand behind a wall.

(e) As a last resort, he should keep on saying the Pasuk in Zecharya "va'Yomer Hashem el ha'Satan, 'Yig'ar Hashem Becha ha'Satan'" etc.

(a) 'Hadachah' means washing the cup from the *inside*, and 'Shetifah' from the *outside*.

(b) The one explanation of "Yam ve'Darom Yerashah" is that they will merit an inheritance without limits, and the other, 'both in this world and in the next.'

(c)&(d) 'Chai' can mean undiluted (until Birchas ha'Aretz, when one adds water), or it can mean that one should bring it from the barrel, specifically in order to Bensch with it.

(a) 'Itur' means to surround the cup (from the word 'Atarah' - a crown), either with one's disciples or with cups, and 'Ituf', to dress appropriately (e.g. to cover one's head properly - to wear a hat).

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Se'u Yedeicham Kodesh" etc. that one should receive the cup with both hands.

(c) The Gemara concludes that one should not use one's left hand to help support the Kos during Bensching.

(d) And from "Kos Yeshu'os Esa" etc. we learn to hold the Kos one Tefach from the table.




(a) One sends the Kos shel Berachah to one's wife, for her to share in the blessings of the Kos shel Berachah.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan maintains that the woman's blessings come through the man, not through her own efforts, as the Pasuk writes "u'Veirach Fri Vitne*cha".* When Yalsa, Rav Nachman's wife, heard that *that* was why she did not receive the Kos shel Berachah, she became so furious that she broke four hundred barrels of wine.

(c) They attempted to pacify Yalsa by sending her wine from the same barrel, on the pretext that it was all included in the Kos shel Berachah.

(d) But Yalsa was not appeased. She accused them of sending her empty, meaningless words.

(a) 'Ein Masichin al Kos shel Berachah' does not refer to *during* Bensching, but to *before* Bensching, from the time that the Mevorech picks up the filled cup until he actually begins Bensching.

(b) From "Hikon Likras Elokecha Yisrael", we learn that one only uses the Kos shel Berachah over a cup which is nice, but not over one which spells punishment, such as a second cup (see Rosh - Si'man 35 and Ma'adanei Yom-Tov 3 - who learns that we are talking about someone who already drank two cups during the meal, and for whom the Kos shel Berachah is the *third* cup).

(c) However one eats, he is obligated to Bensch whilst sitting (see Tosfos, d.h. 've'Hilchesa').

Hadran Alach, 'Sheloshah she'Achlu'!


(a) Beis Shamai's second reason for giving Kidush precedence over wine is because Shabbos comes in before the wine does.

(b) Beis Hillel maintain that, if not for the wine, there would be no Kidush. And besides, the Berachah over wine (which, in those days, was *the* regular drink) is more common than Kidush, and should therefore take precedence.

(c) The Beraisa needs to rule like Beis Hillel, either because it was written before the Bas Kol, or because the author is Rebbi Yehoshua, who does not follow the ruling of the Bas Kol (because of his contention 'Lo ba'Shamayim Hi'!)

(d) It was forbidden to answer 'Amen' after the Berachah of a Kuti, unless he heard the beginning of the Berachah, because we suspect the Kuti of having directed his Berachah towards Har Gerizim, instead of towards Hashem.

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