ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafBerachos 62
(a) Rebbi Akiva learnt from Rebbi Yehoshua (and later Ben Azai from Rebbi
Akiva) that when one is in Yehudah, one does not relieve oneself facing
East -West; that one does not uncover oneself until one is actually
sitting; that one cleans oneself with the left hand.
(b) Their will to learn Torah was so strong, that it overrode all other
considerations - even the regular principles of convential modesty and
Rav Kahana even hid under Rav's bed to observe how Rav behaved during
Tashmish - also because he of a strong desire to learn Torah (all of these
Chachamim took Shimush Chachamim - which is greater than learning from them
- to the extreme)
(c) Rav Kahana found Rav's lightheadedness before the actual Tashmish
rather strange. It seemed to him as if Rav was behaving with excessive
(However, as will be explained in Chagigah, it is essential for the woman
to feel content during Tashmish; and that is precisely what Rav set out to
(d) The four reasons for using the right hand to clean oneself in the
bathroom, and not the left are:
1. Because the Torah was given with the right hand.
2. Because one uses it to eat with.
3. Because one uses it to tie one's Tefilin.
4. Because one uses the right hand to help the Ba'al Kore during Leining,
by demonstrating the Trop and the vowels, when necessary.
(a) Someone who is modest in the bathroom is spared from snakes, scorpions
and demons (i.e. evil spirits).
(b) Some add bad dreams to the list.
(c) Behaving modestly goes together with gentle and quiet behavior. As a
result, the snakes and scorpions, which usually react only when they are
disturbed, remain unconcerned by his presence, and will therefore not
attack him. The demons too, will take pity on him, and leave him alone.
(d) One should also be silent in a bathroom (the Gemara explains elsewhere
that this is confined to men, but does not apply to women).
(a) One should accept Yisurin with silence (like Aharon did - as the Pasuk
in Shemini testifies "va'Yidom Aharon"), and with Tefilah.
(b) The demon of the 'bathroom' is called 'Sair' (goat), and it also
resembles a goat. So, instead of keeping the demons at bay, a goat would
serve the self-defeating purpose of actually attracting them.
(c) Before he became Rosh Yeshivah, Rava's wife (Rav Chisda's daughter)
used to place a nut in a jar and shake it, to frighten away the would-be
attackers (presumably *before* Rava arrived - see 2c).
(d) After he became Rosh Yeshivah, she would make a window in the wall
behind which Rava was sitting, and place her hand on his head through the
window - and demons will generally not attack two people, as we have learnt
earlier (Daf 3b).
(a) Isi ben Yehudah says, that behind a fence, one needs to distance
oneself far enough that others will not hear his winds, whereas in an open
field, he must distance himself so far that others cannot even see him.
(b)&(c) The Mishnah in Ma'asros is lenient with regards to Taharos (which
will become Asur, if they go out of sight in order to relieve themselves).
(d) According to Rav Ashi, Isi does not require him to go completely out of
sight, like we thought till now, but far enough for others not to see his
body uncovered, even though they can still see him in the distance.
(a) Rav Nachman, basing himself on a Beraisa, which describes a modest
person as someone who behaves with extreme modestly in the bathroom, asked
that eulogizer whether he had followed the man he was eulogizing to the
bathroom. Since obviously, he had not, how would he know that he was truly
(b) Rav Nachman also relied on a Beraisa, which states that, just as a dead
man will be punished for his sins, so too, will the eulogizer (and even
those who agree with him and answer 'Amen') be punished for calling him a
Tzadik, when he is not.
(a) No! It is not necessary to go far away from town by night; one may
relieve oneself even in the street or behind a wall of a house.
(b) The Beraisa did not mean to say ... *'ba'Makom* she'Nifneh ba'Yom', but
*'ke'Derech* she'Nifneh ba'Yom', with the same amount of modesty as one
displays by day.
(c) Rav Ashi explains that, even though one may not be obligated to go out
of town in the night as one does by day, one should nevertheless display a
parallel sense of modesty, by at least finding a discreet corner, if one is
available, and not going in the middle of the street.
(a) 1. 'Hashkem ve'Tzei, Ha'arev va'Tzei' means that one is advised to
relieve oneself early in the morning and/or at night-time, in order to
avoid having to leave the town; 2. 'Mashmesh ve'Shev, ve'Al Teshev
u'Temashesh', is advice against witchcraft, to which a person who loosens
his bowels with a twig *after* he sits down, is vulnerable.
(b) Someone who did not pay heed to this last piece of advice, should say
when he gets up: 'Lo Li, Lo Li, Lo Tachim' etc.
(c) 1. One should not lie on the ground; and 2. one should not sit on a
beam (which is high from the ground), because he may fall off.
(d) It is good for the body to sleep at dawn and to relieve oneself at
(a) One should ...
1. ... eat and drink as long as one is hungry.
In both cases, fulfilling the need after it has subsided, is futile.
2. ... relieve oneself as long as one feels the urge to go.
(b) Abaye advised the workers passing through the paths of Mechuza on their
way to work not to look to the sides, because that is where the women used
to relieve themselves early in the morning, and it is not correct to look.
(c) Rebbi Aba commented that Rav Safra was copying the Romans, who behaved
immodestly in the bathroom. Have we not learnt that one should not speak in
the bathroom? Consequently, why did Rav Safra say 'Come in!'?
(d) Rav Safra however, maintained that he understood Rebbi Aba to be in
danger (as we have already learnt with regard to someone who holds back the
need to relieve himself).
(It is not however clear, why Rashi does not rather learn that Rebbi Aba's
comment pertained to Rav Safra's telling him to enter (not just to the fact
that he spoke) since we have learnt in Tamid that once a bathroom was
taken, it would be locked.
And it is in connection with that accusation, that Rav Safra needed to
justify himself. This explanation answers a number of questions which
present themselves according to Rashi's explanation.)
(a) A certain gentile forced Rebbi Elazar out of the 'bathroom', and took
his place. It was when he was subsequently bitten by a snake and died, that
Rebbi Elazar exclaimed "va'Eten Adam Tachtecha", as if to say that that
non-Jew had taken his place to be killed instead of him.
(b) By "ve'Amar", David was referring, not to himself, but to Hashem, who
wrote in His Torah ("Im ba'Machteres" etc.) that if Reuven chases Shimon to
kill him, Shimon (or anybody else, for that matter) is permitted to kill
And "va'Techas Alecha" refers again, not to himself, but to Shaul's
modesty, which placed him a cut above anybody else, and saved him from
(c) When King Shaul wanted to relieve himself, he found a cave within a
cave, and a wall within a wall to do so; and even there, he took great care
to keep his body covered by his clothes - and all this, despite the fact
that, to his knowledge, there was not a soul in sight.
(d) David ha'Melech's clothes no longer kept him warm because, as Chazal
have said: 'Someone who shows disrespect for clothes (he cut a piece off
King Shaul's cloak) will eventually not be warmed by them'.
(a) Hashem responded to David ha'Melech's calling Him (Kevayachol) a
'Meisis', by indeed becoming a 'Meisis' (Kevayachol) and causing him to
count Yisrael (directly, without taking money - the atonement for counting
Yisrael) (or as others explain, to count them unnecessarily), thereby
bringing a plague on Yisrael.
(b) According to some, the plague lasted only from the time of the
Shechitah of the Korban Tamid, till the time its blood was sprinkled;
according to others, until midday.
(c) The plague stopped when Hashem saw either Ya'akov Avinu (from
"Ka'asher *Ra'am*"), the ashes of Yitzchak (from "Elokim *Yir'eh* Lo
ha'Seh" etc.), from the money of the half-Shekalim in the desert - because
it is referred to as "Kesef ha'Kipurim" ('money which atones'), or the Beis
Hamikdash (from "Asher Ye'amer ha'Yom, be'Har Hashem Yera'eh").
(d) The Gemara prefers the final explanation because the Pasuk ("Asher
Ye'amer ha'Yom" etc.) implies that there will come a time when Hashem will
appear on that mountain - "ha'Yom", whenever His presence is needed.
(e) The greatest among them was Avishai ben Tzeruyah (David's nephew), and
he is the one whom the Angel of Death took.
(a) A Kapendarya is a short-cut, and the acronym is 'Ademakif Darei
(Batei)' - 'rather tan go round these rows of houses, rather let me cut
(b) One may take a short cut through a Shul if: (a) if one did not enter
the Shul initially with that intention (e.g. he entered the Shul to Daven
or to learn); (b) if the Shul was built on a former public path.
(c) The Gemara initially learns that one may spit in Shul, from the fact
that one is permitted to wear shoes in Shul.
(d) The Gemara prefers to learn that one may spit in Shul from the leniency
of of wearing shoes, rather than that itis is prohibited from the
prohibition of Kapendarya (which is forbidden by a Shul like like it is in
the Beis Hamikdash), because of the Beraisa, which learns the prohibition
of spitting in the Beis Hamikdash from that of not wearing shoes. So, since
we learn spitting from shoes regarding being forbidden in the Beis
hamikdash, so too will we learn it from shoes by a Shul - to be permitted).
(a) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learns the prohibition of spitting from
Mordechai, by whom the Pasuk writes "Ki Ein Lavo El Sha'ar ha'Melech
bi'Levush Sak". And if one does not go into the house of the king with
sackcloth (which is not intrinsically disgusting), then how much more so
does one not spit (which *is*)!
(b) How can we say that, just because we learn the *stringency* of spitting
in the Beis Hamikdash from that of wearing shoes, we will also learn the
former from the latter regarding the *leniency* of a Shul? Perhaps when it
comes to a Shul, we will learn spitting from Kapendarya, to say that the
former is forbidden just as the latter is? (Presumably, this is based on
the principle that, whenever we have the choice of comparing either
'le'Kula' or 'le'Chumra, we compare 'le'Chumra'.
(c) The Gemara ultimately learns the concession of spitting in Shul from a
logical standpoint: the reason that one is permitted to wear shoes in Shul,
is because, just as people do not usually object to others wearing shoes in
their house, so too, does Hashem not object either (Presumably, taking a
short-cut is prohibited, because people would object to their homes being
used for that purpose.)
Consequently, spitting (which in those days, when they had earth floors,
was neither offensive nor disgusting) is more similar to the wearing of
shoes, and will therefore be permitted in Shul, in the same way as the
wearing of shoes is.