Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
They would normally remove someone who erred in Birchas ha'Tzedokim,
because they were afraid that he was a Min (someone who cleaves to
idolatry). The following year, Shmuel ha'Katan spent hours trying to recall
the text of the Berachah, but to no avail. They did not however, remove him
from the Amud.
(a) How does the Gemara reject this contention?According to Rava, Yochanan Kohen Gadol was initially a Tzadik. He maintains that even an initial Tzadik can become a Rasha.
(d) Why then, did they not remove Shmuel ha'Katan from the Amud?2)
(a) To what do the seven Berachos of the Shabbos Amidah correspond?They correspond to the twenty-four praises of Hashem that Shlomoh Hamelech said after completing the Beis Hamikdash.
(d) What is the connection between the two?3) According to Rav, the short form of Amidah ('Me'ein Shemoneh-Esrei) referred to by Rebbi Yehoshua, is an abridged version of each Berachah.
(a) What does Shmuel hold in this regard?The Gemara then asks why we cannot say 'Havineinu', and insert Havdalah as a fourth Berachah, like we do with Havdalah - according to Rebbi Akiva.
(c) Why indeed, do we not do that?The Gemara remains with an unanswered Kashya on the Sugya.
(d) What is the Kashya?4) 'Havineinu' is also not said in the rain season.
(a) Why not?5)
(a) Why is it, that if one forgot 'Mashiv ha'Ruach' in 'Mechayeh ha'Meisim', one must begin the Amidah again, whereas if one forgot 've'Sein Tal u'Matar' in the rain season, one need not do so, even when one Davens alone.
6) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi rules, that someone who forgot to say 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo', and who concluded the Amidah, must repeat the Amidah. Rav Papa B'rei d'Rav Acha bar Ada adds that that speaks only if he has taken the three steps back, but that if he has not, then it is necessary to begin again.
The first Lashon which follows that statement, maintains that those whose custom it was, to say 'Elokai', would take three steps back *before* 'Elokai'.
(a) According to that Lashon, when is Akar Raglav the criterion to have to repeat the Amidah, and when will he only go back to 'Shema Koleinu'?According to the second Lashon, the three steps are taken *after* Elokai (like we do). And according to this Lashon, once he has taken the three steps back, he must definitely begin the Amidah again.
(b) When will he have to repeat the Amidah, if he did *not* yet take the three steps back, and when will he just go back to Shema Koleinu.7) Rebbi Eliezer, in our Mishnah says 'ha'Oseh Tefilaso Keva, Ein Tefilaso Tachanunim'. Some explain this to mean that one's mind is so flexible that he will be able to say something new, if he so wishes.
(a) Why did Rebbi Zeira not want to add something new to his Tefilos?Others explain that one should choose the ideal time to Daven.
(b) When is the ideal time, and what is the source for that?In Eretz Yisrael, they issued a curse on anyone who made a point of Davening at that time.
(c) Which Tefilah does this refer to, and what is the reason for the curse?The Gemara has given two other interpretation of 'Keva', one to do with attitude and the other, with expression.
(d) What are the two interpretations?8) Our Mishnah quotes an alternative version of Tefilah to be said in a place of danger, which includes the words 'be'Chol Parashas ha'Ibur'. Some explain this to mean 'even at a time when Hashem is angry with them "like a pregnant woman"' (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) What is the second interpretation of these words?There are three other opinions regarding the above Tefilah.
(b) What do they have in common?The Gemara rules strangely enough, not like our Mishnah, but like Acheirim, who says 'Tzorchei Amcha Yisrael Merubin'.
(c) What is the gist of the Tefilah, according to Acheirim.9) Eliyahu taught Rav Yehudah that if he would avoid two things, he would avert sin.
(a) What were they?