Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
(a) When are the participants permitted to eat?Rav Safra changed the initial quotation from 'le'Echol Klum' to 'li'Te'om Klum'.
(b) How significant is that change?2) The person who recites the Berachah should wait for *most* of the participants to have answered 'Amen' before serving himself from the communal dish.
Why not for *all* the participants?
3) One is forbidden to answer 1. an Amen Chatufah; 2. an Amen Ketufah; 3. an Amen Yesomah.
(a) What do these mean?4)
(a) If two people have finished their meal, and a third person now wishes to join them and make up a Mezuman, may he do so?If two people ate together and a third more prominent person comes to join them after they have finished their meal, there are two opinions as to who Bensches Mezuman.
(b) What are the two opinions?5) We learnt in our Mishnah that someone who ate Demai, may Bensch Mezuman.
(a) What problem does the Gemara have with that?The Mishnah also permits someone who ate Ma'aser Rishon whose Terumah was taken to Bensch Mezuman.
(c) But is that not obvious? What is the Chidush?
(a) What is the Chidush of our Mishnah, which permits someone who ate Ma'aser Sheini and Hekdesh which were redeemed to Bensch Mezuman?According to Rava, even a Kuti who is an Am ha'Aretz may Bensch.
(d) How do we reconcile that with the Beraisa, which forbids an Am ha'Aretz to Bensch Mezuman? About which kind of Mitzvos are the Kutim more particular than we are?7) The non-recital of Keri'as Shema, not wearing Tzitzis or Tefilin, not putting up a Mezuzah and not bringing up one's children to study Torah are all criteria (according to different opinions) which determine who is an Am ha'Aretz.
The final opinion (which is also Halachah) is that of Acheirim.
(a) What does Acheirim hold?8) The Mishnah disqualifies someone who ate Tevel, from Bensching Mezuman.
(a) But is that not obvious? Why should it *not* be a Zimun ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah, which is not considered a Berachah, but an insult?Neither can someone who ate Ma'aser Rishon or Hekdesh which was not redeemed Bensch Mezuman.
(c) Here too, is that not obvious?9)
(a) What did Rav Asi mean when he permitted a baby in his cot to combine to make up a Mezuman?Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi permitted a slave to combine to a Mezuman of ten.
(b) What is the problem with this, from the story with Rebbi Eliezer?10)
(a) What advantage do the first ten people to arrive in Shul have?11) The Gemara rejects all of the above cases.
(a) What does the Gemara conclude?