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Bava Kama 80



(a) When Raban Gamliel's Talmidim asked him whether one was permitted to rear small animals in Eretz Yisrael, he replied in the affirmative. This is obviously a misquotation. What they really asked him was - whether one may retain such an animal in case of need?

(b) He permitted it on condition that the animal was kept tied to one's bed-post.

(c) The Rabbanan disagree.

(a) That Chasid followed the opinion of Raban Gamliel - because he had acute heartache that caused him to groan with pain, and the doctors informed him that the only cure was to suck warm milk fresh from a goat each morning. -

(b) When his colleagues came to pay him a visit and saw the goat - they questioned whether it was correct to visit a man who kept an armed robber in his house. Note, this was not a case of life-danger (Agados Maharsha).

(c) They subsequently examined all his past deeds - and came to the conclusion that this was the only sin that he had ever committed.

(d) At the time of his death - he corroborated what his colleagues had said.

(a) According to Rebbi Yishmael's own testimony, his father's family was wiped out (besides the fact that they would allow their small animals to graze in the forest) - because they tended to judge money-matters on their own (without a Beis-Din of three - contravening the Mishnah in Pirkei Avos which warns 'Do not be a single judge, because there is only One single judge').

(b) Despite the fact that grazing small animals in a forest is permitted, Rebbi Yishmael's family was punished - because there was a field belonging to someone else adjoining the forest, which was subject to their animals' foraging.

(a) The Beraisa say that if a shepherd contravenes the above Halachah and subsequently does Teshuvah - he is not obligated to sell all his stocks in one go, but is permitted to sell them off slowly (so as not to discourage him from doing Teshuvah).

(b) This concession also applies to a convert who inherited dogs or Chazeirim.

(c) A similar Halachah applies to someone who declared a Neder to purchase a house or to get married in Eretz Yisrael - who, despite the principle 'Zerizim Makdimin', is not obligated to purchase the first house or to marry the first woman that becomes available.

(d) A certain woman declared that she would marry the first man who came along - because her son was causing her a lot of trouble. When unsuitable suitors arrived at her door, the Chachamim ruled - that it was obvious that this was not what she meant, and allowed her to pick a decent husband.

(a) There is no difference between small Beheimos and small Chayos (such as deer and foxes) regarding the above Halachah. Both are forbidden to rear in Eretz Yisrael.

(b) Rebbi Yishmael (or Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar) permits keeping small dogs, cats, monkeys and Chuldos Sena'im (weasels) in the house - because they serve as a deterrent against mice.

(c) The alternative explanation of 'Kelavim Kufrim' to small dogs is - large hunting-dogs, which are harmless to humans.

(d) The mark of 'Chuldos Sena'im' - which are found in the shrubbery, is that they posses thin legs, conveying the impression that their legs are long (even though they are not [see Tosfos DH 'di'Ketini Shakei']).

(a) Rav made a statement that Bavel had adopted the standard of Eretz Yisrael with regard to rearing small animals - because since the time of Galus Yechonyah, many Jews had been living there, creating a situation similar to the Yishuv of Eretz Yisrael.

(b) When Rav Ada bar Ahavah queried Rav Huna for keeping a small animal in the house - he replied that his wife Chovah kept an eye on it.

(c) Rav Ada's reaction to Rav Huna's reply was to declare that Chovah would bury her son, since she was not competent to prevent it from doing damage (though it is unclear why we need to come on to that). As a result, Chovah bore Rav Huna no children as long as Rav Ada bar Ahavah was alive.

(d) According to the second Lashon, it was actually Rav Huna who introduced the Chumra of Bavel from the time that Rav arrived there. Perhaps he meant that many people came to live in Bavel with the advent of the great Rav. Alternatively, what he may have meant is - that Rav was the one to teach them this Halachah (even though they ought to have kept it from the time of Yechonyah, as we explained in the first Lashon.




(a) A Shevu'a ha'Ben is - a B'ris Milah; whereas a Yeshu'a ha'Ben is - the Se'udah that one arranges at a Pidyon ha'Ben (because 'Yeshua' means redemption).

(b) It was at one of the two that Rav, Shmuel and Rav Asi could not decide who should enter first. The reason that Shmuel refused to go in before Rav Asi was - because the latter (who was a disciple of Rav) was greater than him (even though Shmuel was a Chaver of Rav, and a disciple of Rebbi).

(c) Rav not want to go in before Shmuel, as we shall see. They decided - that Shmuel should wait outside until the other two had settled inside (and it is obvious that Rav went in first, followed by Rav Asi.

(d) They did not decide to leave ...

1. ... Rav outside, and let Rav Asi in first and Shmuel second, because Rav was undoubtedly the greatest of the three, and we will now see why he refused to enter before Shmuel (but it was obvious that Shmuel would not enter before him - see Shitah Mekubetzes).
2. ... Rav Asi outside, and let Shmuel in first and Rav second - because as we just explained, Rav was much greater than Shmuel, and there was no way that Shmuel would precede him into the Simchah. And the reason that Rav refused to go in before Shmuel is because having once erroneously cursed him, he compensated him by giving him a lot of Kavod.
(a) Whilst all this was going on - a cat chewed a child's hand in the vicinity.

(b) This prompted Rav to make four statements about cats: that one is permitted to kill them and forbidden to keep them - that there is no prohibition to kill them and that one is not obligated to return them.

(c) Having taught us that ...

1. ... one is permitted to kill cats, he nevertheless found it necessary to add that one is forbidden to retain them - because we may otherwise have thought that even though anyone is permitted to kill them, for the owner to do so is voluntary.
2. ... that they are not subject to theft, he nevertheless found it necessary to add that there is no Mitzvah to return them - with reference to their skins.
(d) Rav reconciles his statement with Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar (or Rebbi Yishmael) who, in the Beraisa that we quoted earlier, permits retaining a cat (among other things), in order to keep away the mice - by establishing the Beraisa by a black cat, whereas he is speaking about a white one (which is more vicious).
9) Even though the episode with Rav occurred with a black cat, its mother we point out, was white, whereas the Beraisa is speaking about a black cat whose mother too, was black. We reconcile this with Ravina, who asked a She'eilah whether a black cat whose mother was white is considered black or white - by establishing the She'eilah by a black cat whose mother was white but whose grandmother was black, whereas in the case of Rav, both the mother and the grandmother were white.


(a) Rav Acha bar Papa, quoting his brother Rav Aba who in turn, was quoting his brother Rav Ada (or some other combination of the sons of Rav Papa - see the list of his sons in the text of the Siyum of each Maseches) says that one blows trumpets when there is a plague of itchy boils. He said that ...
1. ... once a door of opportunity closes - it does not open again so quickly.
2. ... if someone buys a house in Eretz Yisrael - one may even document the sale on Shabbos.
(b) We need to know the middle Halachah - to know that one needs to pray hard to regain it.

(c) The Beraisa say that, for 'other communal Tzaros, such as boils that itch, locusts, flies, fleas, snakes and scorpions - one cries out to Hashem, but one does not blow the trumpets'.

(d) We reconcile Rav Acha bar Papa (who prescribes blowing the trumpets for boils) with the Beraisa, by citing Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi who said - that the plague of boils in Egypt were exceptionally bad, inasmuch as the boils were (wet on the outside but) dry on the inside, whereas the Beraisa is speaking about boils that are wet on the inside (as well as on the outside).

(a) Mar Zutra explains that the closed door refers to Semichah. According to Rav Ashi - it could refer to anything.

(b) What caused Rav Acha mi'Difti to add that (not only does the door not open quickly, but that once it closes) it will never reopen - were his own unpleasant experiences, since he was appointed to be Rosh Yeshivah, but somehow, the appointment never materialized.

(a) Rav Acha bar Papa also permits documenting the sale of a house in Eretz Yisrael on Shabbos. He could not possibly have meant that - because there is no way (short of when it entails life-danger) that a Tana or Amora would permit an Isur d'Oraysa, and certainly not one that involves Chillul Shabbos.

(b) What he really meant was - that the Chachamim permitted getting a Nochri to document it, even though this would normally fall under the category of 'Sh'vus' (an Isur de'Rabbanan).

(c) Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini says - that if someone buys a town in Eretz Yisrael, he is obligated to buy a path on each of the four sides, because of Yishuv Eretz Yisrael.

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