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Previous daf Bava Metzia 53
BAVA METZIA 51-55 - Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fawer has dedicated two
weeks of Dafyomi study material to honor the second Yahrzeit
of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner, who
passed away 18 Teves 5761). May the merit of supporting and
advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.
1) [line 1] OLIN B'ECHAD U'ME'AH
(a) If Terumah and Bikurim are mixed into Chulin, the entire mixture becomes
prohibited. The Terumah and Bikurim only become Batel (canceled) if one part
of Terumah or Bikurim falls into at least 100 parts of Chulin. Even if the
Terumah or Bikurim is Batel, it is forbidden for non-Kohanim to eat the
entire mixture; the equivalent of the amount of Terumah or Bikurim that fell
in must first be removed from the mixture.
(b) If the percentage of Terumah or Bikurim that fell into the Chulin was
greater than one in one hundred, the mixture is known as *Meduma* (lit.
mixed) and is forbidden to be eaten by non-Kohanim. It can only be sold at a
loss, since the owner cannot charge the Kohanim more than the price of
Terumah for Meduma.
(c) According to Tosfos in Chulin 99a DH Ein, this law applies only if the
Terumah or Bikurim was the same type of food as the Chulin; otherwise it is
Batel just like any other Isur (Shishim, one sixtieth).
2) [line 2] RECHITZAS YADAYIM - Netilas Yadayim, washing the hands, with a
The Chachamim decreed that a person's hands are considered to be a Sheni
l'Tum'ah unless he washes them with water from a cup and concentrates on
keeping then Tehorim from the time that they were washed and onward. One
must wash his hands before eating fruits of Terumah in order not to make the
Terumah a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. (For an extensive discussion of the principles
of Tum'ah and Taharah, see Background to Nazir 54:13.)
3) [line 2] HE'EREV SHEMESH - nightfall
When a person (or utensil) becomes Tamei with a Tum'ah d'Oraisa, he must
immerse in a Mikvah in order to become Tahor. If he has immersed in a Mikvah
but is still waiting for nightfall, he is a "Tevul Yom." The level of Tum'ah
of a Tevul Yom is minimal; the person (or utensil) is considered only a
Sheni l'Tum'ah such that if he touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or
Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Food that is Chulin that he touches
does not become Tamei. At nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor and may
handle and eat Terumah and Kodesh.
4) [line 4] MA'ASER - Ma'aser Sheni
5) [line 5] BATIL B'RUBA (ROV)
When a forbidden object (Isur) is mixed with a permitted object (Heter), the
mixture becomes prohibited if most of the mixture is Isur, but is permitted
if most of the mixture is Heter because of "Bitul b'Rov." (Mid'Rabanan,
sometimes the mixture is prohibited even if most of it is Heter; see next
6) [line 6] DAVAR SHE'YESH LO MATIRIN
(a) When a forbidden object is mixed with a permitted object, the mixture
may be prohibited to be eaten mid'Oraisa, prohibited to be eaten
mid'Rabanan, or permitted to be eaten, as follows:
1. If most of the mixture is Isur, it is prohibited mid'Oraisa.
(b) These rules apply to normal Isurim. There are, however, Isurim for which
Chazal decreed that they not be nullified by a majority or even by sixty
parts of Heter. One of these is Davar she'Yesh Lo Matirin, an object that
will become permitted eventually, either by itself (such as an object that
is Muktzah on Shabbos and Yom Tov and will become permitted when Shabbos or
Yom Tov ends), or through its owner's actions (such as Tevel, for which one
can separate Terumah to permit it to be eaten).
2. If most of the mixture is Heter, but the Isur is more than one sixtieth
of the Heter, i.e. the Isur is "Nosen Ta'am" (lends taste) to the Heter, it
is prohibited mid'Rabanan (since "Ta'am k'Ikar," the "taste" is like the
essence, is a Din d'Rabanan. There are those who prohibit this mixture
mid'Oraisa, when the two mixed substances are not identical ("Min bishe'Eino
Mino"), asserting that "Ta'am k'Ikar" is mid'Oraisa).
3. If the amount of Isur is less than one sixtieth of the Heter, and is not
Nosen Ta'am to the Heter, the mixture is permitted.
(c) The Rishonim offer various reasons to explain why the Rabanan were more
stringent with a Davar she'Yesh Lo Matirin; see Insights to Beitzah 3a for a
brief discussion of this.
7) [line 13] MA'ASER SHE'EIN BO SHAVEH PERUTAH
See Background to Bava Metzia 52:3:f.
8) [line 14] SHE'NICHNAS L'YRUSHALAYIM V'YATZA - fruits of Ma'aser Sheni
which were brought within the walls of Yerushalayim and then were taken out
(see Background to Bava Metzia 52:3:d). (The Gemara later (53b) explains to
which case this refers, and why such Ma'aser Sheni cannot be brought back
into Yerushalayim and eaten, or why it cannot be redeemed.)
9) [line 17] D'LO PARIK - he did not redeem [any other fruits of Ma'aser
Sheni on any other coins]
10) [line 18] D'ORAISA UD'RABANAN LO MITZTZARFEI - fruits of Ma'aser Sheni
that have Kedushah mid'Oraisa do not combine with fruits that have Kedushah
only mid'Rabanan. This applies to fruits of Ma'aser Sheni that became mixed
with normal fruits and thus, mid'Oraisa, are Batel b'Rov and are no longer
Kadosh, but mid'Rabanan they are *not* Batel (because of the rule of "Davar
she'Yesh Lo Matirin" -- see above, entry #6). When one has less than a
Perutah's worth of such fruit, he cannot combine it with less than a
Perutah's worth of fruit that is Ma'aser Sheni *d'Oraisa* in order to be
able to have a full Perutah's worth of fruit to redeem on a Perutah.
11) [line 18] DEMAI
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his
Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" --
"what is this?").
(b) Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must
be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be
trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah,
however, because of its stringency is presumed to have been separated.
Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are
eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the
principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
(c) Since Ma'aser Sheni separated from fruits of Demai is only mid'Rabanan,
the Gemara asks, it should be able to combine with other fruit that is
Ma'aser Sheni mid'Rabanan (see previous entry).
12) [line 19] VADAI - Ma'aser Sheni that was separated from fruits that were
definitely obligated to have Ma'asros separated from them. (Such Ma'aser
Sheni is Ma'aser Sheni d'Oraisa; see previous entry.)
13) [line 1] "...KI LO SUCHAL SE'ESO..." - "[And if the way is too long for
you,] so that you are not able to carry it; [or if the place is too far from
you, which HaSh-m your G-d shall choose to set His name there, when HaSh-m
your G-d has blessed you. Then shall you exchange it (i.e. redeem it) for
money, and bind up the money in your hand, and you shall go to the place
which HaSh-m your G-d shall choose.]" (Devarim 14:24-25) - Although the
literal meaning of this verse is that the quantity of fruit is so great that
it is physically impractical to transport it to Yerushalayim, Rebbi Elazar
interprets it to mean "you are not able to *eat* it." As such, if it becomes
Tamei, it is permitted to redeem it.
14) [line 2] "VA'YISA MAS'OS ME'ES PANAV..." - "And he took and sent
portions [of food to them] from before him; [but Benyamin's portion was five
times as much as any of theirs. And they drank, and were merry with him.]"
15) [line 6] MAI IRYA... ? - Why is this talking about...
16) [line 8] D'NAFUL MECHITZOS - the walls delineating the boundary of
Yerushalayim fell. Consequently, fruit of Ma'aser Sheni cannot be eaten in
Yerushalayim, because the requirement that it be eaten "before Hashem"
(Devarim 12:18) is lacking. (The Gemara at this point assumes that the fruit
cannot be redeemed, since once it enters Yerushalayim it can no longer be
17a) [line 9] MECHITZAH LE'ECHOL - the requirement that the walls around
Yerushalayim be standing in order to eat Ma'aser Sheni there
b) [line 9] MECHITZOS LIKLOT - the walls around Yerushalayim "seize"
fruits of Ma'aser Sheni such that they may no longer be redeemed once they
have entered within those walls
18) [line 24] "IM GA'OL YIG'AL ISH MI'MA'ASRO, CHAMISHISO YOSEF ALAV" - "If
a person will redeem from his fruits of Ma'aser [Sheni], he shall add a
fifth to it." (Vayikra 27:31)
19a) [line 27] EIN BO - the fruit itself is not worth a Perutah
b) [line 28] EIN B'CHUMSHO - the fifth that is added to the value of the
fruit, is not worth a Perutah (i.e. the fruit of Ma'aser Sheni itself is
worth less than four Perutos)
20) [line 32] HAINU DI'KETANI "DAYO" - this is why the Beraisa says the word
"Dayo," that "it suffices," which implies that it is excluding some other
action, other than redemption, that it could have required the owner to take
(such as to bring the fruit itself to Yerushalayim, or to combine it with
more fruit of Ma'aser Sheni so that the Chomesh will be worth at least a
Perutah). Since it is referring to a significant amount of fruit (more than
a Perutah's worth), we would have thought that this action is not
sufficient. Had the Beraisa been referring to the *actual fruit* not being
worth a Shaveh Perutah ("Ein Bo"), then it would have stated the Halachah
without saying the word "Dayo," since we would not have assumed that any
other action needs to be taken, since the amount of fruit itself is not
21a) [line 35] CHUMSHA MIL'GAV - a fifth of the original price (lit. "from
the inside"), or 20% more
b) [line 36] CHUMSHA MIL'VAR - a fifth of the ensuing total (lit. "from
the outside"), or 25% more.