POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Bava Metzia 87
1) THE ANGELS' VISIT (cont.)
(a) Why did they immediately agree to eat by Avraham, but Lot
had to insist?
2) THE LOCAL CUSTOM
(b) (R. Elazar): This teaches that we may refuse the offer of
a small person, not of an important person.
(c) Question: Avraham only offered bread, but he gave beef!
(d) (R. Elazar): This teaches that Tzadikim say little and do
1. The wicked say much and do not even do little!
(e) Question: Avraham asked Sarah to take "Kemach Soles" -
which did he mean?
2. We learn from Efron - at first, he said "Four
hundred silver Shekalim (is not important, the land
is a gift)" - in the end, "Avraham heard (the true
desire of) Efron...400...Over la'Socher";
i. He demanded 400 coins each worth 10,000 Dinarim
- there are places where 10,000 Dinarim is
(f) Answer (R. Yitzchak): (She wanted to give Kemach (regular
flour), he insisted on Soles (fine flour)) - this teaches
that woman are stingier with guests than men.
(g) Question: Avraham asked her to make "Ugos" (of bread),
but we do not find that he served them!
(h) Answer (Efrayim Maksha'ah): Sarah became Nidah that day;
and Avraham used to eat even Chulin in Taharah. (The
bread became Tamei; Maharsha - Avraham ate Chulin like
Kodesh. A Nidah is retroactively considered Temeah 24
hours before she sees blood regarding Kodesh; the angels
told Avraham that Sarah would become Temeah that day.)
(i) Avraham told them that Sarah is in the tent - this
teaches that she was modest.
(j) (Rav Yehudah): Even though the angels knew this, they
asked where Sarah was, to endear her to Avraham.
(k) (R. Yosi bar Chanina): They asked in order to send her to
drink from the cup over which they blessed after eating.
(l) (R. Yosi): There are dots over the letters 'Aleph, Yud,
Vov' of "Elav" - this teaches that (they knew 'Ayo
(where)' she was, they only asked because) it is proper
conduct to inquire about the host's wife.
(m) Question: But Shmuel taught, we do not inquire about
women at all!
(n) Answer: One may ask through her husband.
(o) (Rav Chisda): "Acharei Velosi Haysah Li Ednah" - After
becoming wrinkled, her skin became smooth, she returned
to her beauty.
(p) Question: She said "va'Adoni Zaken", but Hash-m told
Avraham that she said "Va'ani Zakanti"!
(q) Answer (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): Shal-m is so important
that Hash-m switched her words (so Avraham would not know
that she called him 'old').
(r) Question: "Heinikah Banim" - Sarah only had one son!
(s) Answer (R. Levi): Avraham made a big banquet on the day
he weaned Yitzchak (to publicize the miracle). Everyone
was saying that Sarah did not bear Yitzchak, rather, they
found him deserted when he was a baby - to prove this,
everyone brought a baby without anyone to nurse him, and
asked Sarah to nurse him. Hash-m made a miracle that
Sarah was able to nurse all the babies.
1. They had to admit that Sarah bore Yitzchak; they
said, this is because she is only 90 - but Avraham
is 100, surely it is not his son!
(t) Until Avraham, there were no visible signs of old age;
people who wanted to talk with Avraham sometimes talked
to Yitzchak (and vice-versa, because they looked the
same). Avraham prayed for a solution, and Hash-m agreed -
"V'Avraham Zaken Ba ba'Yamim".
2. Hash-m immediately made Yitzchak's face resemble
Avraham's, forcing them to admit that "Avraham Holid
(u) Until Yakov, there was no weakness (shortly before death;
people did not know when to command or bless their
children) - Yakov prayed for a solution, and Hash-m
agreed - "Va'Yomer l'Yosef Hinei Avicha Choleh".
(v) Until Elisha, no one ever recovered from weakness (it
only came shortly before death); he prayed, and recovered
- "Chalyo Asher Yamus Bo" - implying, he was sick other
times (and recovered).
(a) (Mishnah): Before they start working, tell them that you
only promise them bread and legumes.
3) WHEN WORKERS MAY EAT THE OWNER'S FOOD
(b) Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Yosef): Is the text of the
Mishnah 'bread of legumes' or 'bread and legumes'?
(c) Answer (Rav Chisda): I swear, it is 'Bread and legumes'.
(d) (Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): There was no need for
this - all is according to the local custom.
(e) Question: What does 'all' come to include?
(f) Answer: The following case (R. Shimon holds like
Chachamim, the custom overrides the principal of 'to take
money from another, one must bring proof').
1. (Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): One who hires a worker
'Like one or two of the people of the city', he gets
the lowest wage people get;
2. Version #1 (Rambam): Chachamim say, he gets the
average of the highest and lowest wages.
3. Version #2 (Rashi) Chachamim say, he gets an
(a) (Mishnah): If one is working with finished food attached
to the ground (Tosfos - it is ready to be harvested;
Rashi - he is harvesting), or any labor with food that
was detached which (needs further processing and
therefore) is exempt from Ma'aser, he may eat;
(b) If one is working with unfinished attached food, or with
detached (finished) food that must be tithed (before
eating), or with food that did not grow from the ground,
he may not eat.
(c) (Gemara) Question: How do we know this?
(d) Answer: "B'Cherem Re'echa you may eat".
(e) Question: How do we know that he may eat in places other
than a vineyard?
(f) Answer #1: We learn from a vineyard: a worker may eat
grapes in a vineyard, they grow from the ground and are
finished - also anyone working with finished food that
grows from the ground.
(g) Objection: We cannot learn from a vineyard - there,
workers may eat, for the owner must also leave Olelos
(deficient clusters) for the poor;
1. (Perhaps by other produce, by which there is no law
of Olelos, workers may not eat!)
(h) Answer #2: We learn from Kamah (standing crop).
1. Question: How do we know that he may eat Kamah?
(i) Objection: We cannot learn from Kamah, for Chalah must be
separated (when making a dough) from it.
2. Answer: "B'Kamas Re'echa".
1. Question: How do we know that the verse speaks of
Kamah from which Chalah must be taken? Perhaps it
speaks of any standing crop!
(j) Answer #3: We learn from a vineyard that permission to
eat does not depend on liability to take Chalah.
2. Answer: We learn a Gezeirah Shavah "Kamah-Kamah"
from the Omer: just as that speaks of (barley)
something Chalah is taken from, also here.
1. Question: We cannot learn from a vineyard, one must
leave Olelos there!
(k) Objection: We cannot learn from the Tzad ha'Shavah, since
(products of) both grapes and Kamah are offered on the
2. Answer: We learn from Kamah that permission to eat
does not depend on Olelos.
i. The stringency of each is unlike the stringency
of the other; the common side of both is that
they grow from the ground and when finished,
anyone working with them may eat - also
anything that grows from the ground, when
finished anyone working with it may eat.
1. Concession: At least we can learn to olives, for
they are offered on the Altar.
(l) Answer #3 (Shmuel): "*V*'Chermesh (*and* a scythe)" -
this includes anything harvested with a scythe.
2. Question: We do not need to learn olives from the
Tzad ha'Shavah - an olive orchard it itself called a
vineyard - "Kerem Zayis"!
3. Answer (Rav Papa): It is called "Kerem Zayis", it is
not called just 'Kerem'.
4. We still have no source for foods not offered on the
1. Question: That is needed to teach that one may eat
only when (Rashi - he harvests them; Tosfos - they
are ready for harvesting) with a scythe!
(m) Objection: We only learn things harvested with a scythe -
how do we know things not harvested with a scythe.
2. Answer: That we learn from "V'El Kelyecha Lo Siten".
(n) Answer #4 (R. Yitzchak): "Kamah" - anything that stands
(i.e. grows from the ground).
(o) Question: But we proved that "Kamah" only refers to
things from which Chalah must be taken!
(p) Answer: That was before we expounded "V'Chermesh";
1. Now that "V'Chermesh" teaches anything harvested
with a scythe, whether or not Chalah is taken from
it, "Kamah" is extra to teach everything that grows
from the ground.
(q) Question: Now that we learned everything from "Kamah" and
"V'Chermesh", why did the Torah have to write "Kerem"?
(r) Answer (Rava): For the special laws of a vineyard.
1. (Beraisa): It says "Ki Savo" by eating in another's
vineyard, and also by paying a worker the same day.
Just as the latter speaks of a worker, also the
2. "B'Kerem Re'echa" - not in a Nochri's vineyard;
(Rashi - there, you may even put into your vessels;
Ritva - there, you may not take at all).
3. We understand this according to the opinion that it
is forbidden to steal from Nochrim.
4. Question: According to the opinion that it is
permitted to steal from them, (Rashi - the verse is
not needed; Ritva - we cannot say that a worker is
forbidden) - what do we learn from the verse?
5. Answer: "B'Cherem Re'echa" - not in a Hekdesh
vineyard. (There, you may not eat.)
6. "V'Achalta" - not to suck the juice and discard the
7. "Anavim" - not grapes and something else (to make
8. K'Nafshecha" - the worker has the same law as the
i. Just as the owner can eat without tithing
(there is no obligation to tithe until making
wine), also a worker.
9. "Savecha" - not gorging oneself.
10. "V'El Kelyecha Lo Siten" - you may eat only when you
are putting in the owner's vessel (i.e. harvesting -
Rashi; Tosfos - when they are ready to put in his
vessel (i.e. fully ripe)).