REVIEW QUESTIONS ON GEMARA AND RASHI
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Bava Metzia 25
(a) What do we extrapolate from the Mishnah, which obligates someone who
finds fruit inside a vessel and money inside a purse to announce it?
(b) How do we know that this inference is correct?
(c) What does another Beraisa say about someone who finds something which
has no Si'man beside something which has, in the event that the owner claims
(d) To resolve the discrepancy, Rav Z'vid differentiates between a jar with
flax, and a basket of fruit.
- ... both?
- ... only the object with the Si'man?
What is the difference between them? Which
one refers to our Mishnah, and which one to the second Beraisa?
(a) Alternatively, Rav Papa establishes both cases by a jar with flax. Then
why does the second Beraisa obligate the finder to announce it?
(b) And when might he be permitted to keep the fruit even though the barrel
does not have a rim?
(a) What can we prove from our Mishnah 'Tziburei Peiros ve'Tziburei Ma'os
... Chayav Le'hachriz'?
(b) What does Rebbi Yitzchak Magdela'ah mean when he says (in connection
with the three coins in our Mishnah, which our Tana obligates the finder to
announce) 've'Hu she'Asuyin ke'Migdalin'?
(c) And we support this with a Beraisa.
What problem do we have with the
Beraisa, which permits the finder to keep the three scattered coins that he
finds, but obligates him to return them, as long as they are shaped like a
(d) How do we answer this Kashya?
(a) Rebbi Chanina, explaining Rebbi Yitzchak Magdela'ah's statement,
requires the three coins to be of three different kings.
What do we
initially understand him to mean? Why does his statement then make no sense?
(b) Then what does he mean?
(c) What does Rebbi Yochanan say?
(a) We think at first, that the finder announces the number of coins that he
found (and the owner describes how they were placed).
On what grounds do
we reject this suggestion?
(b) So what does Ravina conclude? What does the finder announce?
(c) Ravina asks what the Din will be if the lost coins are placed 'ke'Shir,
ke'Shurah, ka'Chatzuvah or ke'Sulam'. If ...
- ... 'ke'Shir' means in a circle, what does 'ke'Shurah' mean?
- ... 'ka'Chatzuvah ' means in the shape of a triangle, what does 'ke'Sulam' mean?
(a) The only one of Rebbi Yirmiyah's She'eilos that we resolve is based on a
statement by Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah.
Answers to questions
What did he say?
(b) Which She'eilah does his statement resolve?
(c) Rav Ashi asked about coins that are shaped like the stones of Beis
What is Beis Kulis? How are its stones shaped?
(d) We resolve Rav Ashi's She'eilah from a Beraisa.
What does the Beraisa
(a) What does the Beraisa say in a case where Reuven finds a Sela in the
main street, and Shimon identifies it as a new coin, from the era of the
emperor Nero or of another king (see Chasdei David on the Tosefta)?
(b) What if his name is inscribed on it?
(a) What does the Tana of our Mishnah say someone should do if he finds
young tied pigeons ...
(b) And what should he do if he finds a vessel in a trash-heap, assuming the
vessel is ...
- ... behind a wooden fence or behind a wall?
- ... on the paths in the fields?
- ... covered?
- ... uncovered?
(a) Why should someone who finds (two) young tied pigeons behind a wooden
fence leave them where they are? Why not take them ...
(b) Why can the owner not identify it by means of ...
- ... and announce them?
- ... and keep them?
(c) Seeing as the birds are fluttering around, why do we not assume that
they arrived from somewhere else, and consider them an Aveidah without a
- ... the knot?
- ... the location?
(d) What does Rebbi Aba bar Zavda Amar Rav say one should do (or not do)
with the birds in the event that he did pick them up?
(a) We learned in our Mishnah that if one finds a covered vessel in a
trash-heap, he should leave it alone.
The previous Beraisa added a reason (for its ruling to take the vessel from
the trash-heap and announce it) 'she'Kein Derech Ashpah Li'panos'. This goes
well with Rav Papa's explanation.
What does the Beraisa rule in such
(b) Rav Z'vid differentiates between jars and cups on the one hand and a
Hemnek (a sort of two-edged spoon or fork, one narrow and one broad) on the
other. Why should the type of vessel make any difference?
(c) Rav Papa establishes both the Mishnah and the Beraisa by jars and cups.
Then why does the Tana of the Beraisa rule 'Notel u'Machriz?
(d) If the Tana is speaking about a trash-heap that the owner clears away,
why is it not considered an Aveidah mi'Da'as (as if the owner had declared
But how does Rav Z'vid (amend its
reading and) explain it? If the trash-heap is going to be cleared, then why
should the size of the vessel make any difference?
(a) What does the Mishnah say about someone who finds an object ...
Answers to questions
(b) In which case would the finder be permitted to keep the article even if
he found it in the inner half of a new wall (and even in the house itself)?
- ... in a pile of stones or in an old wall?
- ... in a relatively new wall?
(c) What is the significance of the old wall in the Reisha of the Mishnah?
Why does the age of the wall entitle the finder to keep what he finds there?
(d) How do we know that it was not the present owner (or his father) who
placed the object there?