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Previous daf Chagigah 18
1) [line 6] CHAG SHE'YESH BO ASIFAH - a festival that occurs at a time of
gathering [the grain that has been drying in the fields during the summer]
2) [line 37] MAH SHEVI'I ATZUR - just as [on] the seventh [day of Pesach] it
is forbidden to do (lit. one is held back from doing) Melachah
3) [line 40] LO MESARAN HA'KASUV ELA LA'CHACHAMIM... - the Torah has handed
over to the Chachamim the right to decree which days of the festival are Yom
Tov and which days are Chol ha'Moed (through Kidush ha'Chodesh) and the right
to decide which Melachah is forbidden on Chol ha'Moed and which Melachah is
*4*) [last line] KAN B'YOM TOV SHE'CHAL LIHEYOS ACHAR HA'SHABBOS - that is,
the year that Alexe died, Shavuos was on a weekday, and not on Shabbos. He
died the day after Shavuos, which is the Yom Tavo'ach of the Korbenos Olos
Re'iyah according to Beis Shamai.
5) [line 1] TERUMAH / MA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the
Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-
year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the
money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself
redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total,
or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this
money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten
b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is
exempt from the additional fifth.
6) [line 2] KODESH - Korbanos
7) [line 2] CHATAS (MEI CHATAS)
[I] PARAH ADUMAH
The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har
ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei
Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other
work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared
for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the
courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is
sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar
branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the
carcass of the cow while it is burning. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
[II] MEI CHATAS
If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a Mes, he must wait
seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring
water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him.
A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together
into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the
seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in
order to complete his Taharah. (Bamidbar 19:17-19)
8a) [line 9] BIGDEI AM HA'ARETZ, MIDRAS L'PERUSHIN - the clothes of an Am
ha'Aretz, (i.e. a person who usually eats food that is Tamei) are considered
by Perushim (i.e. those who usually eat their food b'Taharah) to be Tamei
b) [line 9] MIDRAS
(a) A Zav who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day
or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(b) He can cause objects that are under him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether
he touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that
is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the
*Tachton*, of a Zav.) An object may become a Midras if it was made for lying,
sitting, or leaning upon.
(c) A cloth must be at least three Tefachim square in order to become a
Midras. A cloth that is smaller than this is Tahor due to its insignificance.
Earthenware objects (Klei Cheres) cannot become Midras.
(d) A person who touches or carries a Midras is Tamei and is Metamei the
clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils)
that he is touching. He and the items he touches get the status of Rishon
(e) Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a
Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon*
of a Zav.
9) [line 9] PERUSHIN - people who eat their Chulin with the stringency that
applies to Terumah or Kodshim (with regard to protecting it from Tum'ah)
10) [line 13] MITPACHTO - his shawl or head covering
11) [line 17] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in
one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Kohen takes the basket of
fruit and places it at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach
(RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12). The owner recites a specified declaration
(Devarim 26:3,5-10), and the fruits are then given to the Kohen (Mishnah
Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the
land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes,
figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are
the *only* species of produce truly indigenous to Yisrael. Other,
"immigrant," species can be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these
7 species will always be part of the land -- heard once from a leading
(c) In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit, without reciting
the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if he brings them between
Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Gemara Pesachim 36b
and Rashi there).
12) [line 17] CHOMESH (TASHLUMEI TERUMAH)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, the
owner must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim
and members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they
(b) If a non-Kohen eats Terumah without knowing that it is Terumah, he must
replace what he ate in the form of a food that becomes Terumah (Tashlumei
Terumah). He returns the amount of Terumah that he ate to the Kohen who owned
the Terumah (see Insights to the Daf, Pesachim 32). In addition, he is fined
another Chomesh (fifth) of the ensuing total (i.e. a quarter of the value of
what he ate). This Chomesh may be paid to any Kohen (Terumos 6:2), and is not
necessarily given to the Kohen who owned the Terumah that was eaten.
(c) If the person ate Terumah in an abnormal fashion, such as by drinking
olive oil, he only pays the value of the Terumah that was destroyed (i.e. the
normal Halachah of damages applies to him, and not the laws of Tashlumei
(d) A non-Kohen who eats or benefits from Terumah b'Mezid (intentionally)
pays the value of the Terumah destroyed (i.e. the normal Halachah of damages
applies to him, and not Tashlumei Terumah), and incurs the punishment of
Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
13) [line 18] V'OLIN B'ECHAD U'ME'AH
(a) Terumah only becomes Batel (canceled) if one part of Terumah falls into
at least 100 parts of Chulin. Even if the Terumah is Batel, it is forbidden
for non-Kohanim to eat the entire mixture; the equivalent of the amount of
Terumah that fell in must first be removed.
(b) If the percentage of Terumah that fell into the Chulin was greater than
one in one hundred, the mixture is known as *Meduma* (lit. mixed) and is
forbidden to be eaten by non-Kohanim.
(c) According to Tosfos in Chulin 99a DH Ein, this law applies only if the
Terumah was the same type of food as the Chulin; otherwise Terumah is Batel
just like any other Isur.
14) [line 25] METAMEI ES HA'KODESH (THE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TUM'AH)
(a) All objects belong to one of three categories:
1. Sources of Tum'ah
(b) All sources of Tum'ah are called Av ha'Tum'ah, except for a corpse, which
can generate more Tum'ah than any other object and is therefore referred to
as the "Avi Avos ha'Tum'ah."
2. Objects that can become Tamei
3. Objects that cannot become Tamei
(c) When one object makes another object Tamei, the second object has a
weaker Tum'ah than the first. If something becomes Tamei from an Av, it is
called a Rishon l'Tum'ah. A Rishon makes a Sheni l'Tum'ah. (Liquids are an
exception to this rule. The Chachamim decreed that liquids should always be a
Rishon, even if touched by a Sheni.)
(d) A Sheni L'Tum'ah cannot make Chulin Tamei mid'Oraisa. Even mid'Rabanan,
there is no such thing as Shelishi L'Tum'ah with regard to Chulin. Terumah,
however, can become a Shelishi L'Tum'ah. (Also, if someone guarded his Chulin
from Tum'ah as one normally guards Terumah, it is called "Chulin she'Na'asu
Al Taharas Terumah," and can become a Shelishi.)
(e) Terumah that is a Shelishi l'Tum'ah cannot make other Terumah Tamei.
However, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather
than "Tamei." Kodesh (objects associated with the sacrifices) that is touched
by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called
*14*) [line 26] VA'CHACHAMIM OSRIM B'MA'ASER - that is, the Chachamim
prohibit a person who is Tamei mid'Rabanan (a Sheni l'Tum'ah) to *eat*
Ma'aser (even though the Ma'aser will not become Tamei through contact with a
Sheni, since it cannot become a Shelishi -- see Insights).
15) [line 33] NAHAMA - bread
16) [line 36] HA'MATBIL YADAV - one who immerses his hands in a Mikvah in
order to eat Kodshim