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Previous daf Chulin 4
CHULIN 4-5 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the fourth Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study during the week of his
Yahrzeit serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah.
1) [line 1] DAKURYA SHEL TZIPORIM - (a) (O.F. rest - a string or rope) a
string or rope upon which slaughtered birds are strung (RASHI); (b) a basket
of slaughtered birds (TOSFOS)
2) [line 1] KOTE'A - he cuts off
3) [line 13] (SIMAN MACHN"IS IZM"EL BI'ZECHAR"IM) - this is a mnemonic
device that stands for a word from the three Sugyos stated by Rav *Menashi*
in all of Shas (this is the Girsa of the DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #6; in Avodah Zarah
30b the Girsa should be Rav *Ashi* -- Dikdukei Sofrim to Avodah Zarah #3),
1. *Machnis* refers to "Amar Rav Menashi *b'Machnisan* Tachas Kenafav..."
4) [line 14] B'MACHNISAN TACHAS KENAFAV - when he puts them (all of the
birds) under the folds [of his cloak so that the Kusi does not know from
which bird the head came]
2. *Izmel* refers to "Amar Rav Menashi *b'Izmel* she'Ein Lo Karnayim..."
(Daf 31a, line 19, according to the Girsa of the DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #10)
3. *bi'Zecharim* refers to "Amar Rav Menashi Hani *Dichrei* d'Ganvei
Ganvi..." (Daf 51a, line 6) (the word "Zecharim" in Aramaic is "Dichrei")
5) [line 16] D'MEMASMES LEI MASMUSEI - he minces it up
6) [line 17] EIN SHECHITAH L'OF MIN HA'TORAH
(a) The laws of Shechitah (proper ritual slaughter) that permit an animal to
be eaten were handed down to us through a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Chulin
28a, based on Devarim 12:21).
(b) There is a Machlokes as to whether these laws apply to birds as well.
Those who maintain that the Torah (and the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai) does
*not* require that a bird be slaughtered learn this from the verse that
states, "and you shall spill its blood" (Vayikra 17:13), which implies that
spilling alone is sufficient (Chulin 27b). Even according to this opinion, a
bird is permitted by the Torah only if it is killed by a person with a blow
that severs the trachea or esophagus (RASHI to Chulin 27b DH Ein Shechitah).
7a) [line 18] HAGRAMAH - to cut the Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus)
such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of
the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.
b) [line 18] IKUR - to "rip out" the Simanim from the neck and then cut
them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah,
such as by cutting them with a dull blade.
8) [line 21] MATZAS KUSI - the Matzah baked by a Kusi
See Background to Chulin 3:8.
9) [line 27] LO BEKI'EI B'SHIMUR (SHIMUR MATZAH)
(a) The Torah states, "You shall guard the Matzos" (Shemos 12:17), teaching
that during the production of Matzos, one must watch (or "guard") the wheat
to prevent it from becoming Chametz (leavened) for the sake of the Mitzvah
of Matzah. The Gemara (Pesachim 40a) discusses the extent to which Matzah
must be watched from becoming Chametz. One opinion suggests that it must be
watched from before the time that it is kneaded. The Gemara (ibid.)
concludes that no proof can be brought that Matzah must be watched from
before kneading. Nevertheless, Rava taught that when cutting the grain in
the fields and tying it into bundles, people should have in mind that they
are doing it for the sake of the Mitzvah of Matzah.
(b) The RIF rules that the Shemirah must be done from the time that the
grain is cut, based on what Rava told the people.
(c) The SHE'ILTOS (Parshas Bo) writes that from the moment the wheat comes
in contact with water, it must be watched from becoming Chametz. The ROSH
confirms this opinion and says that where he lives there is always water
found in the vicinity of the mills where the flour is ground, and therefore
the practice is to watch the wheat from the time that it is ground into
(d) The RAN adds another reason to watch the flour from the time that it is
ground. Rava said that watching it from the time of kneading is not
sufficient Shemirah; one must watch it from *before* the time that it is
kneaded. Therefore, one must watch it from the time of grinding. This might
be the opinion of RASHI in Chulin (Daf 7a) as well, who mentions that we
watch the flour from the time of grinding.
(e) The ROSH (to Pesachim 2:26) rules that it is enough to have Shemirah
from the time of kneading, because the proof of Rava was not established as
conclusive. Even the Rif and the others who say that the flour should be
watched before kneading, only mean that it is *proper* to watch it then, but
not that it is obligatory. That is, if one does not watch it from the time
that it is cut, the Matzah is still Kosher for fulfilling the Mitzvah to eat
(f) All three opinions of the above opinions are cited by the SHULCHAN ARUCH
(453:4). L'Chatchilah, one should watch the wheat from the time that it is
cut in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Matzah in the most ideal way, as the
Rosh writes. If one is unable to watch it from that time, then b'Di'eved he
should watch it from the time of grinding, or at least from whenever it
comes near water. In extenuating circumstances, one may fulfill the Mitzvah
with Matzah that was watched only from the time of kneading.
10) [line 30] IKA BEINAIHU DI'CHESIVA V'LO ACHZIKU BAH - they differ with
regard to a Mitzvah that is written in the Torah, but we have not verified
that they are careful to keep this Mitzvah (RASHI)
11) [last line] CHEMTZAN SHEL OVREI AVEIRAH ACHAR HA'PESACH (CHAMETZ
SHE'AVAR ALAV HA'PESACH)
There is a Machlokes Tana'im with regard to Chametz that was in the
possession of a Jew during Pesach. Rebbi Yehudah rules that this Chametz is
prohibited to eat and is Asur b'Hana'ah (to derive benefit from it)
mid'Oraisa. Rebbi Shimon rules that it is prohibited to eat and is Asur
b'Hana'ah due to a Gezeirah d'Rabanan.
12) [line 1] MIPNEI SHE'HEN MACHLIFIN - since they exchange [their Chametz
she'Avar Alav Es ha'Pesach for that of the Nochrim]
13) [line 11] AREL - someone who is uncircumcised. The Gemara states that
this refers to a person who is a Mumar l'Arlus (see next entry)
14) [line 14] MUMAR L'ARLUS - a Jew who, of his own volition, refuses to
15) [line 20] KEIVAN D'DASH BEI K'HETEIRA DAMI LEI - since he has gotten
used to it (eating Neveilos), it is considered to him like permitted food
16) [line 21] MUMAR L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM - a person who worships Avodah Zarah
(a) Avodah Zarah is the term for a Pesel (an idol or graven image) or
anything such as the sun or the moon, or even a person, which people
mistakenly believe is an independent power with G-d-like attributes, which
they worship and to which they pray. It is prohibited to do even the most
minute action that demonstrates the ascendancy of Avodah Zarah. Avodah Zarah
is one of the three cardinal sins about which we are commanded, "Yehareg
v'Al Ya'avor" - "One should be killed rather than transgress." (The other
two are Giluy Arayos - forbidden relations and Sheficus Damim - murder. But
see RAMBAM Hilchos Yesodei ha'Torah 5:1-4.)
(b) The prohibition against serving Avodah Zarah is one of the Ten
Commandments, "Lo Yiheyeh Lecha Elokim Acherim Al Panai. Lo Sa'aseh Lecha
Fesel v'Chol Temunah... Lo Sishtachaveh Lahem v'Lo Sa'ovdem..." - "You shall
not possess any foreign gods, ever (lit. in my presence). You shall neither
make for yourself a graven image nor any likeness of that which is in the
heavens above or on the earth below or in the water beneath the earth. You
shall not prostrate yourself to them nor worship them for I am HaSh-m, your
G-d..." (Shemos 20:3-5).
(c) A person who serves Avodah Zarah b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to
the Kares punishment. If he received the proper warning and witnesses saw
his action, he is liable to Sekilah (stoning). A person who worships Avodah
Zarah b'Shogeg (unintentionally) is liable to offer a Korban Chatas (RAMBAM
Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 3:1). A person who makes an idol or other Avodah
Zarah, even for a Nochri, is liable to Malkus (lashes) (Rambam ibid. 3:9).
Any adult Nochri can annul an idol made for or served by a Nochri (Avodah
Zarah 43a), while an idol made for or served by a Yisrael can never be
(d) Many rites were invented for specific forms of Avodah Zarah. If a person
serves an Avodah Zarah with a rite specific to it, he is Chayav as above,
(c). If one serves an Avodah Zarah with a rite that was intended for another
Avodah Zarah, he is exempt from punishment. However, the verses show that a
person who performs the services of Zibu'ach (sacrificing an animal), Kitur
(burning incense), Nisuch (pouring a libation) and Hishtachava'ah (bowing
down) is Chayav, whether it is specific to the Avodah Zarah or not
(Sanhedrin 60b, see Rambam ibid. 3:3). The prohibition against Avodah Zarah
is included in the seven Mitzvos Benei Noach, the seven commandments in
which all of humanity is obligated (see Background to Avodah Zarah 46:4).
17a) [line 27] "... VA'YIZBACH LO ACHAV TZON U'VAKAR LA'ROV, VELA'AM ASHER
IMO, VA'YESISEHU LA'ALOS EL RAMOS GIL'AD." - "... and Achav slaughtered for
him and for the people who were with him many sheep and cattle, and he
persuaded him to go up to [battle against] Ramos Gil'ad." (Divrei ha'Yamim
b) [line 27] ACHAV
Achav Ben Omri was one of the wicked kings of the ten tribes of Yisrael
(Melachim I 16:29 - 22:40, Divrei ha'Yamim II 18:1-34). Although he united
the people and was successful in battle, he filled the land with idol
worship and sins that angered HaSh-m like no one before him had ever done
(ibid. 16:30-33). Eliyahu was told to inform Achav, the wicked king of the
ten tribes of Yisrael, that he will be punished for the murder of Navos
ha'Yizre'eli, his relative. Achav had an uncontrollable desire for the
vineyard of Navos. Izevel, the wife of the king, devised a sinister plot in
which Navos was executed and Achav inherited the vineyard. HaSh-m held Achav
responsible for the murder, sending word through Eliyahu the prophet that
"in the place where the dogs licked the blood of Navos shall the dogs lick
your blood." Divine retribution was to be meted out upon Achav for this and
his many other sins. In Melachim II 22, all of the King's advisors and
(false) prophets advocated a war with Aram, predicting Achav's victory.
Concurrently, Michaihu, a true prophet, saw a vision in which the spirit of
Navos offered to entice Achav into the battle that would lead to his doom.
This spirit was responsible for all of the false prophecies of victory.
Nevertheless, Achav took the advice of the false prophets and he alone was
slain in the battle. Although he was later buried, much of his blood was
indeed lapped up by dogs in the same place where Navos was executed.
18) [line 31] "KI YESISCHA ACHICHA..." - "If your brother, [the son of your
mother, or your son, or your daughter, or your wife, or your friend, who is
as dear to you as your own soul,] entices you [secretly, saying, 'Let us go
and serve other gods,' which you have not known, you, nor your fathers.]"
(Devarim 13:7) - The Gemara claims that the enticement was brought about
when the instigator fed the person who he tried to entice.
19) [line 32] B'ACHILAH UVI'SHESIYAH - this refers to giving him to eat
[meat] and to drink [wine]
20) [line 32] "... VA'TESISEINI L'VAL'O CHINAM." - "... he is still holding
strong to his wholesomeness, and you persuaded Me to destroy him for no
reason." (Iyov 2:3) - At the beginning of the story of Iyov, the Satan asks
HaSh-m permission to entice Iyov to sin. HaSh-m lets him, and Iyov, at
first, proves true to HaSh-m, even though the Satan caused him to suffer
greatly. In this verse, HaSh-m chastises the Satan for his disbelief in the
righteousness of Iyov.
21) [line 33] L'MA'ALAH SHANI - events that refer to [HaSh-m] on high are
different (where eating and drinking do not apply)
22) [line 38] STAM YEINAM
See Background to Chulin 3:9.
23) [line 43] V'DILMA OVADYAH ZAVACH - but perhaps it was Ovadyah who
slaughtered the animals. Ovadyah was an Edomite convert, who served as the
steward in the house of King Achav of Yisrael. He perfected himself to the
extent that he became a prophet. His prophecy is recorded as Sefer Ovadyah,
one of the books of the Trei Asar, which deals with the downfall and
destruction of Edom (Esav).
24) [line 46] "V'HISH'ARTI B'YISRAEL SHIV'AS ALAFIM KOL HA'BIRKAYIM ASHER LO
KAR'U LA'BA'AL..." - "And I will leave in Yisrael [only] seven thousand
[men,] all knees that have not kneeled to the Ba'al..." (Melachim I 19:18) -
HaSh-m tells Eliyahu of the downfall of Achav and the destruction of the
idol worshipers of Ba'al.
25) [line 47] TEMUREI HAVU MITAMREI ME'IZEVEL - they were hiding from Izevel
[so that she would not have them killed, and would not come out in the open
to slaughter animals for Yehoshafat]
26) [line 49] "MOSHEL MAKSHIV AL DEVAR SHAKER, KOL MESHARSAV RESAH'IM." - "A
leader who listens to falsehood, all of his servants are wicked." (Mishlei