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Chulin 18

1) [line 1] KEDEI SHE'TACHGOR BAH TZIPOREN - [a nick of] a size that can stop (O.F. arester) a fingernail [that is moved across it]

2a) [line 4] HA B'SIDA - this (the Beraisa that says the minimum size of a nick to disqualify the Mizbe'ach is a Tefach or a k'Zayis) is referring to [a nick] in the plastering over the Mizbe'ach
b) [line 4] HA B'AVNA - this (the statemant that a nick large enough to stop a fingernail disqualifies the Mizbe'ach) is referring to the stones that comprise the Mizbe'ach

3) [line 5] TABACHA - a ritual slaughterer (Shochet)
4) [line 5] D'LO SAR SAKINA - who does not give his knife to be inspected

5) [line 6] MESHAMTINAN LEI - we excommuite him (SHAMTA)
(a) The minimum period of Niduy is thirty days in Eretz Yisrael or seven days in Bavel and elsewhere. If the Menudeh does not repent from his ways he is put into Niduy for a second thirty-day period. If he still does not repent, he is then put into Cherem. The laws of Cherem are much more stringent.
(b) No one may come within four Amos of the Menudeh, except for his wife and family. He is not permitted to eat or drink with other people, nor is he included in a Zimun or any other Mitzvah that requires a quorum of ten men. He may not wash his clothes, shave or take a haircut or wear shoes. Learning and teaching Torah, however, are permitted, as well as engaging in work. The last two are not permitted to a Muchram, who must learn by himself and engage in work to the minimum that will provide him daily sustenance. People may speak with the Menudeh or the Muchram unless Beis Din specifically prohibits it.
(c) Even if the period of Cherem or Niduy has ended, a person remains in Niduy or Cherem until he is permitted by three commoners or by an expert sage (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 334:27 and REMA ibid. 334:24)

6) [line 6] ME'ABRINAN LEI - we remove him [from his job]
7) [line 10] MEMASMES LEI B'FARASA - he must soil it (the meat) with dung
8) [line 13] IKLA'U MAR ZUTRA V'RAV ASHI L'GABEI - Mar Zutra and Rav Ashi visited him (Rava bar Chinena)

9) [line 15] TALU BEI TAFLEI - [his] little children depend on him [to provide for them]

10) [line 34] MI'TOCH HA'TABA'AS - within the Taba'as ha'Gedolah, the top ring of cartilage (the cricoid cartilage) surrounding the trachea
11) [line 39] MAKEFES ES KOL HA'KANEH - it encircles the entire trachea
12) [line 40] SHE'AR TABA'OS - the other rings [of cartilage around the trachea]


13) [line 3] MUGREMES - an animal slaughtered by a slanting cut which reaches partially above the uppermost ring of cartilage (the Taba'as ha'Gedolah; see above, entry #10) around the trachea (HAGRAMAH)
The law of "Hagramah," one of the five main laws of Shechitah (see Background to Chulin 2:1), teaches that one may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.

14) [line 9] KI SALIK REBBI ZEIRA - when Rebbi Zeira went up [from Bavel to Eretz Yisarel]

15) [line 9] MUGREMES D'RAV U'SHMUEL - the animal that is a Mugremes (see above, entry #13) according to Rav and Shmuel (and is not Kosher). Rav and Shmuel rule that a cut in any of the other rings of cartilage, other than the uppermost one, invalidates the Shechitah, since the other rings do not entirely encircle the trachea. (Cutting between the rings, however, is valid.)

16) [line 17] SHELOSHAH MATIRIN ES HA'BECHOR - three ordinary Jews (non-experts) may permit a first-born animal with an external (easily discernible) blemish to be slaughtered outside of Yerushalayim, by examining it and declaring it to be blemished (see Background to Chulin 17:39)

17) [line 18] MUMCHEH - an expert in the identification of blemishes (Mumin)
18) [line 18] NOSNIN ALAV CHUMREI HA'MAKOM SHE'YATZA MI'SHAM V'CHUMREI HA'MAKOM SHE'HALACH L'SHAM - we give him (i.e. we make him abide by) the stringencies of the place that he left, and the stringencies of the place to which he went

19) [line 23] KEIVAN D'ANAN KAIFINAN LEHU - since we (in Bavel) are subordinate to them (in Eretz Yisrael, with regard to the laws of establishing the new moon, the leap year, and administering monetary penalties) (RASHI)

20) [line 27] V'HA RABANAN D'ASU MI'MECHOZA AMREI - but the sages who came from Mechoza (a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River in Bavel) say that a "Mugremes" (see above, entry #15) is Kosher (unlike Rav and Shmuel who rule that it is not Kosher)

21) [line 29] NAHARA NAHARA U'FASHTEI - each river has its tributaries (i.e. each place has its own practice)

22) [line 30] CHODA D'KOVA'A - (lit. the sharp point of the cap) the roof of the thyroid cartilage, at the top end of the trachea

23) [line 31] GISA GISA - too much, too much! (You have validated a Shechitah which should not be valid.)

24) [line 32] PAGA B'CHITEI - [if the knife] encountered (touched) the Chitei, the two glands inside the "Taba'as ha'Gedolah" (see above, entry #10)

25) [line 32] PAGA V'NAGA VAHEN - it (the knife) encountered and touched them (and cut them)

26) [line 33] "VA'YIFGA VO VA'YAMOS" - "And he encountered him (and struck him) and he died." (Melachim I 2:46) - Shlomo ha'Melech commanded Benayahu ben Yehoyada to kill Shim'i ben Gera, in accordance with the command of David ha'Melech.

27) [line 33] PAGA V'LO NAGA - it (the knife) encountered them but did not touch them (rather, the cut came very close to the glands)

28) [line 36] AMAR (RAV) AMEIMAR BAR MAR YENUKA HAVAH KA'IMNA KAMEI D'REBBI CHIYA BREI D'RAV AVYA - Ameimar, the son of Mar Yenuka, said, "I was standing in front of Rebbi Chiya the son of Rav Avya, and he said to me..."

29) [line 38] RAV SHEMEN (MI'SOVARA) [MI'SICHRA] - Rav Shemen from Sichra, a town in Bavel, near Mechoza (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM)

30) [line 38] IKLA MAR ZUTRA L'ASRIN V'DARASH - Mar Zutra visited our place and he taught

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