POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Chulin 59
1) FOODS THAT CAN KILL (cont.)
(a) (Rav Yehudah): If one eats three measures of Chiltis
before his meal, his skin will come off.
2) THE "SIMANIM" OF KOSHER SPECIES
1. R. Avahu: I ate one measure - had I not been in
water, my skin would have come off - "Chachmah gives
life to Chachamim".
(b) (Rav Yosef): Ingesting the wrong combination of eggs,
nuts, pits and honey in summer (before his meal) can
uproot the heart.
(c) A deer whose hind legs were cut was brought before the
Reish Galusa. Rav checked the juncture of the sinews and
ruled that it is Kosher; he planned to eat from it
1. Shmuel: You should be concerned, perhaps a snake bit
it (where the legs were cut off)!
2. Rav: How can we check for this?
3. Shmuel instructed to put it in the oven (to fully
roast it); it started crumbling.
i. Shmuel: "No mishap will occur to a Tzadik."
ii. Rav: "No secret is withheld from you."
(a) (Mishnah): The Torah gives Simanim that show which
animals and Chayos are Tahor, but does not give Simanim
3) THE "SIMANIM" OF NON-DOMESTICATED ANIMALS
1. Chachamim gave Simanim for birds - any bird that is
Dores is Tamei.
(b) If a Chagav (grasshopper or locust) has four legs and two
extra forelegs, and four wings that cover the majority
(of the body), it is Kosher;
2. (Here, Dores does *not* mean to poison through
scratching. Rashi - it holds its food in its claws
while eating; R. Tam (61A) - it eats its prey before
3. If a bird has an extra toe, and a crop, and the
stomach peels off, it is Tahor.
i. R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok says, any bird that
divides its claws (when perching on a stick) is
1. R. Yosi says, it must be called Chagav.
(c) Fish that have Snapir and Kaskeses are Kosher;
(d) R. Yehudah says, it must have two Kaskesin and one
1. Kaskeses are fixed in the body (scales); Snapir is
what it uses to swim (fin.)
(e) (Gemara - Beraisa): These are the Simanim of Tahor
animals: "The hooves are split..." - any animal that
chews the cud surely has no upper teeth, and is Tahor.
(f) Objection: This is not always true - a camel chews the
cud and has no upper teeth, but it is Tamei!
(g) Answer #1: A camel has two upper teeth (or tooth-like
protrusions.) (Tosfos - this answer is incomplete, it
does not answer for rabbits (the Gemara later asks about
rabbits). Rashba - we currently understand the Beraisa to
say 'Any animal that chews the cud *and* has no upper
teeth is Tahor', this answer is complete.)
1. Objection #1: But a young camel (chews the cud and)
does not have any upper teeth (and is Tamei)!
(h) Answer #2 (to all questions): The Beraisa means, if an
animal has no upper teeth, it surely chews the cud and
has split hooves and is Tahor.
2. Objection #2: But rabbits and Shafanim chew the cud,
have upper teeth and are Teme'im! (Some identify
Shafan with a hare, rock-badger, or a kind of
3. Objection #3: The Torah does not say that Taharah
depends on upper teeth!
(i) Question: Why must we look for teeth to know about the
hooves - one can see whether or not the hooves are split!
(j) Answer: This rule is needed when the hooves are cut off;
it suffices to check the mouth.
1. (Rav Chisda): If one finds an animal in the
wilderness whose hooves are cut off, he checks the
mouth; if there are upper teeth, it is Tamei; if
not, it is Tahor;
(k) (Rav Chisda): If one finds an animal on the road whose
mouth is cut off, he checks the hooves:
i. He may rely on this only if he knows that the
animal is not a camel.
ii. Question: Camels have two upper teeth, the rule
works for camels!
iii. Correction: Rather, he must know that it is not
a young camel.
iv. Question: Just like young camels are exceptions
to the rule, perhaps there are more exceptions!
v. Answer (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "The
camel, for it chews the cud" - the Torah lists
the only Tamei animals that chew the cud, all
others that chew the cud are Tehorim.
vi. (Chazal knew that any animal without upper
teeth chews the cud. Seemingly, we should be
concerned for exceptions to this rule, for the
Torah did not teach it! Perhaps it is
impossible to chew food sufficiently without
upper teeth, unless it has been partially
digested in a stomach.)
1. If they are split, it is Tahor; if not, it is Tamei;
(l) (Rav Chisda): If one finds an animal in the wilderness
whose hooves and mouth are cut off, he checks the skin:
2. He may only rely on this if he knows that the animal
is not a pig.
3. Question: Just like pigs are exceptions, perhaps
there are more exceptions!
4. Answer (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "The pig,
for it has split hooves" - the Torah teaches that
pigs are the only Tamei animals with split hooves.
1. If it tears lengthwise and widthwise, it is Tahor;
if not, it is Tamei;
(m) Question: Where does he check the skin?
2. He may only rely on this if he knows that the animal
is not an Arod (wild ass?).
3. Question: Just like the Arod is an exception,
perhaps there are more exceptions!
4. Answer: We have a tradition from Moshe from Sinai
that there are no other exceptions.
(n) Answer (Abaye): He checks under the tailbone.
(a) (Beraisa): These are the Simanim of Chayos...
(b) (Interjection): Chayos have the same Simanim (of Taharah)
like domestic animals!
(c) Answer (R. Zeira): The Beraisa gives the Simanim to
distinguish Chayos from Behemos - the difference is,
Chelev of Chayos is permitted.
(d) (Beraisa): These are the Simanim of Chayos, whose Chelev
is permitted - any animal with horns and hooves;
4) SPECIAL CREATIONS OF HASH-M
1. R. Dosa says, it suffices if it has horns; having
hooves is not a sufficient Siman by itself.
(e) Question: The rule is not reliable - goats have horns and
hooves, but their Chelev is forbidden!
2. A Keresh (giraffe?), even though it only has one
horn, (its Chelev) is permitted.
(f) Answer: The horns must grow in shells (to be a Siman.)
(g) Question: This is not true - an ox has shelled horns, but
its Chelev is forbidden!
(h) Answer: Having *grooved* horns is a Siman.
(i) Question: Goats have grooved horns, but their Chelev is
(j) Answer: The horns must branch out (Tosfos - they must be
straight, but bent at the end.)
(k) Objection: A deer is a Chayah, its horns are not like
(l) Answer: Having such horns is a sure Siman that it is a
Chayah; if not, the horns must be shelled, grooved and
1. The grooves must be very close to each other.
(m) The Reish Galusa had a goat of Karkuz; he stored up its
2. The argument regarding goats of Karkuz depended on
1. Rav Achai: The Chelev is forbidden.
(n) (Beraisa): Even though a Keresh has one horn, its Chelev
2. Rav Shmuel brei d'R. Avahu (permitted it and) ate
some of the Chelev.
3. (Chachamim of Eretz Yisrael): The Halachah follows
Rav Shmuel; still, out of respect for Rav Achai, one
should not permit the Chelev in front of Rav Achai.
(a) (Rav Yehudah): A Keresh is the deer of Bei Ilai; Tigras
is the lion of Bei Ilai.
(b) (Rav Kahana): There are nine Amos between the sides of a
lion of Bei Ilai.
(c) (Rav Yosef): A deer of Bei Ilai is 16 Amos long.
1. Kaiser: Your G-d is compared to a lion - but
valorous men can kill lions!
2. R. Yehoshua ben Chananyah: He is compared to a lion
of Bei Ilai.
3. The Kaiser insisted on seeing this lion, above R.
Yehoshua's protests. R. Yehoshua asked Hash-m to
bring the lion.
4. When the lion was 400 Parsah away, it roared; all
the pregnant women miscarried, and the walls fell
down. When the lion was 300 Parsah away, it roared;
people's teeth fell out, and the Kaiser fell off his
chair. He asked R. Yehoshua to ask Hash-m that the
lion should return to its place.