POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Chulin 61
CHULIN 61-63 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in
honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.
1) THE "SIMANIM" OF BIRDS THAT ARE "TAMEI"
(a) (Mishnah): The Torah did not give Simanim of Tamei and
(b) Question (Beraisa): "The Nesher (vulture or eagle?)" -
just like a Nesher has no extra toe, nor a crop, the skin
of the stomach does not peel off, and it is Dores, also
any bird with these Simanim is Tamei;
1. Just like a Tor (pigeon) has an extra toe, and a
crop, the skin of the stomach peels off, and it does
not Dores, also any bird with these Simanim is
(c) Answer (Abaye): The Simanim are not written in the Torah,
they are part of the oral tradition.
(d) (When we do not specify, 'Siman' refers to a Siman of
(e) (Beraisa - R. Chiya): A bird with one Siman is Tahor, for
it does not resemble a Nesher;
1. A Nesher has no Simanim, it may not be eaten; birds
with a Siman may be eaten.
(f) Question: Why not learn from Torim?
1. Torim have all four Simanim and are permitted - any
bird must have all four Simanim to be permitted!
(g) Answer: If so, there would be no need for the Torah to
list all the Tamei birds (since each has at least one
Siman of Tum'ah.)
(h) Question: Why don't we learn from the other Tamei birds?
1. Some have three Simanim, yet they are forbidden - we
should say, any bird with only three Simanim is
forbidden, all the more so if it has only one or
(i) Answer: If so, the Torah would not have needed to say
that a raven (which has two Simanim) is forbidden.
(j) Question: Why don't we learn from the raven?
2) COULD WE LEARN THE "SIMANIM" FROM "PERES" AND "OZNIYAH"?
1. It has two Simanim, yet it is forbidden - we should
say, any bird with only two Simanim is forbidden,
all the more so if it has only one!
(k) Answer: If so, the Torah would not have needed to
explicitly forbid Peres (ossifrage?) and Ozniyah (a type
of hawk), each has only one Siman.
(a) Question: Why don't we learn from Peres and Ozniyah?
1. Each has one Siman, yet it is forbidden - we should
say, any bird with only one Siman is forbidden!
(b) Answer: If so, the Torah would not have needed to say
that a Nesher (which has no Simanim) is forbidden.
1. Rather, the Torah forbids a Nesher, which has no
Simanim - we infer, a bird with a Siman may be
(c) Question: We cannot say that had the Torah not written
"Nesher", we would have learned from Peres and Ozniyah,
for they are Shnei Kesuvim (two verses, what one teaches
could have been learned from the other, i.e. that a bird
with one Siman is forbidden), we do not learn from Shnei
(d) Answer: (Peres and Ozniyah are rare birds, Chachamim of
the Gemara did recognize them. Nevertheless,) we have a
tradition that each has a different Siman than the other.
(Therefore, one could not be learned from the other - had
it written only one, we would have thought that any bird
with the other Siman is Tahor.)
(e) Question: There are 24 Tamei species (almost all have
three Simanim) - surely, some birds have the Siman of the
Peres (and two others), others have the Siman of the
Ozniyah (and two others - therefore, we would not have
thought that any bird with the other Siman is Tahor!)
1. Since it was not necessary to write Peres and
Ozniyah, they are Shnei Kesuvim!
(f) Answer: We have traditions regarding the 24 Tamei species
and the four Simanim:
1. Twenty species have the same three Simanim.
(g) Question: Why must the Torah write "Torim" (even birds
with one Siman are permitted)!
2. The raven has two Simanim;
3. The Peres and Ozniyah have different Simanim (and
one of them has the Siman not found in any other
Tamei species, so it could not be learned from
4. Therefore, had the Torah not written Nesher, we
would have learned it from Peres or Ozniyah;
i. Now that the Torah wrote "Nesher", we learn
that a bird with even one Siman is Tahor.
(h) Answer: The Torah must teach that Torim (and doves) are
acceptable for Korbanos.