POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Chulin 63
CHULIN 61-63 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in
honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.
1) THE SPECIES THE TORAH FORBIDS
(a) (Rav Yehudah): "Sholach" - this is the bird that takes
fish from the sea (seagull); "Duchifas" (hoopoe) has a
2) THE 24 "TAMEI" BIRDS
(b) Support (Beraisa): Duchifas has a thick comb; this bird
brought the Shamir (the special worm used in building the
(c) (R. Yochanan): "Your (Hash-m's) judgments are utterly
deep" - this is exemplified by the Sholach (it takes a
fish from the sea when the fish is destined to die;
alternatively, Hash-m decreed that the Sholach must toil
so hard for its food);
1. "Tzidkascha k'Harerei Kel" - this is exemplified by
the ant (even a tiny creature has life energy like a
big creature; alternatively, an ant finds its food
(d) (Ameimar): Likni and Bitni are permitted;
1. One must follow the local custom regarding Shaknoy
and Bitnoy, it varies from place to place.
(e) (Abaye): Kavoy and Kakavoy are forbidden; Kakuasa is
2. Question: Why should the law depend on custom?
3. Answer: Theses are similar to Peres and Ozniyah.
Where Peres and Ozniyah are common, we are concerned
that the species may be confused, so one may not eat
(what he thinks) is Shaknoy and Bitnoy.
1. Chachamim in Eretz Yisrael lash one who eats
Kakuasa; they call it Tachvasa.
(f) (Beraisa): Tinshemes (a kind of bat) is the Bavas (night
crier; some explain, the most despised) of the birds.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it is rather the Bavas of the
(g) (Beraisa): Tinshemes (mole) is the Bavas of the
2. Rejection: One of the 13 methods of expounding the
Torah is to learn from the context; Tinshemes is in
the Parsha of birds, it is a bird.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it is rather the Bavas of the
(h) (Abaye): Kifuf is the Bavas of the birds; Korpedai is the
Bavas of the Sheratzim.
2. Rejection: We learn from the context - Tinshemes
(mentioned) in the Parsha of Sheratzim is a Sheretz.
(i) (Rav Yehudah): "Ko'as" is the Kuk; "Rocham" is Sherakrak.
1. (R. Yochanan): It is called Rocham because Rachamim
(mercy, i.e. rain) comes after it appears.
(j) (Beraisa): "Orev" - this is an Orev (raven); "Kol Orev" -
this includes the Amaki (deep) raven; "l'Mino" - this
includes the raven b'Roshei Yonim (this will be
2. (Rav Bibi bar Abaye): This is only if it was perched
on something and chirping.
3. We have a tradition - if it would sit on the ground
and chirp, Moshi'ach would come.
4. Question (Rav Ada bar Simi): But such a bird chirped
on the ground, and a stone fell on it and killed it!
5. Answer (Mar bar Rav Idai): That bird lied (and was
(k) Question: Saying 'This is an Orev' does not clarify
(l) Correction: Rather, "Orev" - this is a black raven, like
we learn from "Black, like a raven";
1. An Amaki (deep) raven is white - Tzara'as is white,
it is "Deeper than the skin";
(m) (Rav Papa): 'The raven b'Roshei Yonim' - this means, its
head looks like a dove's head.
(n) (Beraisa): "The Netz" - this is a Netz (hawk); "l'Minehu"
- this includes Bar Chiri.
(o) Question: What is Bar Chiri?
(p) Answer (Abaye): It is Shorinka (a hawk).
(q) (Rav Yehudah): "Ha'Chasidah" - this is a white Dayah.
1. It is called Chasidah because it does Chesed with
(r) "Ha'Anafah" - this is an ill-tempered Dayah.
1. It is called Anafah because it is Misanef (gets
angry) with its friends.
(a) (Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda citing Rav Chisda): There are
24 Tamei birds.
(b) Question (Rav Chanan bar Rav Chisda): The Torah lists the
Tamei birds twice - it does not list 24 either time!
1. In Vayikra, it lists 20; in Devarim, it lists 21!
(c) Answer (Rav Chisda): Regarding four species, the Torah
says "and its related species" - each of these adds
2. Suggestion: "Do'oh" is listed in Vayikra, not in
Devarim - we should add this to the list in Devarim.
3. Rejection: Still, we will only have 22!
(d) Question: If so, there are 26!
(e) Answer (Abaye): "Do'oh' and 'Ro'oh' are two names for the
1. This must be so, for they are repeated in Devarim to
add species - it is unreasonable that a species
would be omitted!
3) THE MULTITUDE OF SPECIES
2. We must say that Do'oh is also in Devarim, i.e. it
(f) Question: Still, this leaves 25 species!
(g) Answer (Abaye): Also, Ayah and Dayah are the same
1. It is unreasonable that the Torah would say
"l'Minah" (to include a related species) regarding
Ayah in one list, and "l'Minah" regarding Dayah (but
not by Ayah) elsewhere, in particular, since the
latter list comes to add species!
(h) Question: If they are the same, why does the Torah write
2. It must be, they are the same species.
(i) Answer (Beraisa - Rebbi): Had the Torah called it by only
one name, people who call it by the other name would be
able to claim that the Torah did not forbid it.
(j) Question (Beraisa): The animals with only one Siman of
Taharah were repeated in Devarim to teach about the
Shesu'ah; the birds were repeated to teach about the
1. Suggestion: Just like the animals were repeated to
teach about a new one, also the birds were repeated
to teach about a new one!
(k) R. Avahu holds that there are not 24 species.
2. Rejection: No - regarding animals, it adds;
regarding birds, it clarifies.
(l) (R. Avahu): Ro'oh and Ayah are the same species.
1. It is called Ro'oh because it sees very far - "The
eye of an Ayah did not see it".
2. (Beraisa): From Bavel it can see a carcass in Eretz
3. Suggestion: Since he holds that Ro'oh and Ayah are
the same species, he must hold that Do'oh is not the
same like Ro'oh.
4. Rejection: The list in Devarim comes to add - it is
unreasonable that it would omit species!
i. Rather, we must say that Do'oh, Ro'oh and Ayah
are all the same.
5. Suggestion: Since he holds that Ro'oh and Ayah are
the same species, he must hold that Dayah is not the
same like Ayah.
6. Rejection: It is unreasonable that it says "l'Minah"
regarding Ayah in Vayikra, and "l'Minah" regarding
Dayah (but not regarding Ayah) in Devarim (in
particular, since the latter list comes to add
i. It must be, they are the same species. (In
conclusion, all four are the same species,
there are only 23 Tamei species.)
(a) (Beraisa - Isi ben Yehudah): There are 100 species of
Tamei birds in the east, they are all species of Ayah.
(b) (Avimi brei d'R. Avahu - Beraisa): There are 700 species
of (Tamei) fish, 800 species of (Tamei) Chagavim, and
(c) Question: But there are only 24 (Tamei) birds!
(d) Answer: He teaches that there are countless Tahor birds.
(e) (Beraisa - Rebbi): Hash-m knows that there are more Tahor
birds than Tamei, therefore, the Torah lists the Teme'im.
(f) Question: What is the Chidush?
(g) Answer: He teaches Rav Huna's law.
1. (Rav Huna): A person should teach his Talmidim
(h) (R. Yitzchak): One needs a tradition to eat a species of
bird; a hunter is believed to say that his teacher told
him that a certain species is Tahor.
1. (R. Yochanan): The teacher must know the names and
recognize the Tamei species.
2. Question (R. Zeira): Does this refer to his Rebbi
who taught him Torah, or the one who taught him to
3. Answer: R. Yochanan said that the teacher must know
the names and recognize the Tamei species.
i. This is reasonable regarding the one who taught
him to hunt.
ii. A Chacham could know the names, but he would
not recognize all the Tamei species!