POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Chulin 88
CHULIN 86-90 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and
prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) FLUIDS THAT ARE "TAMEI"
(a) (Mishnah): All fluids of a Mes (corpse) are Tahor, except
for its blood; if it appears red, it is Metamei b'Ohel.
2) WHICH BLOOD MUST BE COVERED
(b) Contradiction (Mishnah): Fluids of a Tvul Yom (one who
immersed today, he is partially Tamei until evening) are
like liquids that he touches, they are not Metamei;
1. The fluids of all other Teme'im, light or severe,
are like fluids they touch, i.e. Rishon l'Tumah;
(c) Answer: No, light Teme'im are Sheratzim, severe Teme'im
2. The only exception is fluids that are Avos (sources
3. Suggestion: 'Light' Teme'im refers to Sheratzim and
Zavim; 'severe' Teme'im are Mesim.
(d) Question: Why did Chachamim decree Tum'ah on fluids of a
Zav, but not of a Mes?
(e) Answer: Chachamim wanted to distance people from Tum'ah,
so they decreed on a Zav;
1. People stay far from a Mes even without a decree.
(a) (Mishnah): Blood that spurted, and is on the knife...
3) WITH WHAT MAY WE COVER?
(b) (Beraisa #1): "V'Chisahu" - this teaches that blood that
spurted or is on the knife must be covered;
(c) R. Yehudah says, this is only if there is no other blood;
if there is other blood to cover, he is exempt.
(d) (Beraisa #2): "And you will cover it" - this teaches that
all the blood must be covered, including blood that
spurted and blood left on the place of slaughter;
1. R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, this is only if Dam
ha'Nefesh (the blood that leaves when an animal
dies) was not covered; if it was covered, he need
not cover the other blood.
(e) Question: What do they argue about?
(f) Answer: The first Tana (of Beraisa #2) holds that "Damo"
connotes all the blood; R. Yehudah holds that even some
of it is called "Damo"; R. Shimon ben Gamliel holds that
"Damo" refers to its special blood, Dam ha'Nefesh.
(a) (Mishnah): One may cover the blood with fine manure, fine
sand, plaster, or ground up pottery, bricks or cork;
(b) One may not cover with coarse manure or sand, nor with
bricks or cork that were not ground up;
(c) One may not cover with a vessel;
(d) R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, we may cover only with things
in which vegetation grows.
(e) (Gemara) Version #1 - Question: What is considered fine
(f) Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is sand that a potter
does not need to crush.
(g) Version #2 - Question: What is considered coarse sand?
(h) Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): This is sand that a potter
(i) Question: What is the difference between the two
(j) Answer: They argue about sand that can be crushed by
hand. (Rashi - Version #1 considers this to be fine,
Version #2 considers it to be coarse; the Rif learns
(k) (Beraisa) Suggestion: "V'Chisahu" - perhaps one may use
rocks, or put a vessel over it!
1. Rejection: "Be'Afar" (he must use dirt.)
2. Question: What is the source to include fine manure
or sand, pulverized rocks or pottery, stubble of
flax, sawdust, plaster, crushed bricks or cork?
4) DIRT AND ASHES
3. Answer: It says "V'Chisahu" (before "Be'Afar",
implying that one may cover with anything.)
(l) (Rav Nachman bar Rav Chisda): We may cover only with
something in which we can plant seeds, and they will
4. Suggestion: Perhaps one may cover with coarse manure
or sand, ground up metal, bricks or cork that were
not ground up, flour, or bran!
5. Rejection: "Be'Afar".
6. Question: Why are the former materials allowed, and
not the latter?
7. Answer: Only types of dirt are allowed.
8. Suggestion: We should expound "V'Chisahu" - Klal;
"Be'Afar" - Prat; from a Klal u'Prat we only include
the Prat, i.e. dirt!
9. Rejection (Rav Mari): The Prat was needed to
understand the Klal. (We would not have known that
the blood must be absorbed in the covering (Rashi;
Tosfos - that the blood must also be covered from
i. In all such cases, we do not expound Klal
1. Rava: That is a boorish thing to say!
2. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak: What is wrong with it? I
taught this to him, I derived it from a Beraisa!
i. (Beraisa): If a man in the desert or on a ship
has no dirt, he may grind up a gold coin or
burn a garment to cover the blood with the
fragments or ashes. (This shows that desert
sand is invalid - this is because seeds will
not grow in it.)
ii. Ashes (of a garment) are allowed, because (in a
verse) ashes are called dirt.
iii. Question: Why may pulverized gold be used?
iv. Answer (R. Zeira): This is also called dirt -
"Dirt of gold".
(a) (Beraisa - Beis Shamai): We may only cover with dirt;
(b) Beis Hillel says, ashes are also valid, since they are
called dirt - "Me'Afar Sereifas (ha'Chatas)".
(c) Beis Shamai: Ashes are called Afar Sereifah, not (plain)
(d) (Beraisa): The following materials were also allowed -
crushed coals, eye powder, stubble that is extracted from
(e) Some allow even orpiment (a yellow dye.)
(f) (Rava): In the merit that Avraham said "I am dirt and
ashes", his descendants merited two Mitzvos, ashes of the
Parah Adumah, and dirt in the water that a Sotah drinks.
(g) Question: Why did Rava omit dirt of Kisuy ha'Dam?
(h) Answer: That Mitzvah does not give special benefit (more
than standard Mitzvos, Rava's Mitzvos are Metaher and
permit a woman to her husband.)