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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Chulin 133


(a) (Rav Chisda): There are 24 Matnos Kehunah - we do not give to a Kohen that does not know their laws (e.g. that they must be eaten with grandeur).
(b) Rejection (Beraisa - R. Shimon): If a Kohen denies that Hash-m commanded about the Avodah, he gets no share in Kodshim - "Hamakriv... Lo Tihyeh... l'Manah."
1. Question: This only teaches that he must admit to Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach) - what is the source that he must admit to the other 15 Avodos, i.e.:
i. (Regarding a Minchah) putting on oil, mixing (the oil and the flour), breaking it into fine pieces, salting, Tenufah (waving), bringing close to the Mizbe'ach, taking a Kometz;
ii. Haktarah (burning on the Mizbe'ach), Melikah (cutting a bird's Simanim with the fingernail), Kabalah (receiving blood of slaughter), sprinkling blood;
iii. Giving a Sotah to drink, beheading Eglah Arufah, Taharas Metzora, giving Birkas Kohanim in and outside the Mikdash?
2. Answer: "mi'Benei Aharon" - all the Avodos of Kohanim.
3. Inference: A regular Kohen that admits to all the Avodos has a share of Kodshim, even if he is not fluent in them.
(c) (R. Aba): It is forbidden to eat the veins in the jaw (because they are full of blood) - if a Kohen does not know to remove them, we do not give him the jaw.
(d) Rejection: We give him - he will not eat forbidden blood!
1. If he roasts the jaw, the blood will flow out;
2. If he cooks it, the blood will come out when he cuts the veins and salts the meat!
(a) Question (Rav Yosef): Is it proper to grab Matanos (from children bringing them to Kohanim) to show appreciation of the Mitzvah, or is this a disgrace?
(b) Answer (Rava): It is wrong - "v'Nasan," he should not take by himself.
(c) Abaye (who was a Kohen): I used to take by myself - after I heard the above teaching, I stopped taking, but I would ask for Matanos;
(d) (Beraisa - R. Meir): "va'Yitu Acharei ha'Botza" - Shmuel's sons would ask for Ma'aser (and the verse degrades this)!
(e) (Abaye): After I heard this, I stopped asking, but I would take if people gave me.
(f) (Beraisa): The modest Kohanim would refrain from taking [Lechem ha'Panim; when it was no longer blessed there was not enough for all the Kohanim, and the gluttonous ones would grab it].
(g) (Abaye): After I heard this, I stopped taking; I only take on Erev Yom Kipur, so people will know that I am a Kohen.
1. Question: Giving Birkas Kohanim would suffice to publicize that he is a Kohen!
2. Answer: Abaye could not give Birkas Kohanim (Rashi - he was busy teaching, he was unable to go to the synagogue at that time; Aruch - digestive problems prevented him).
(h) (Rav Yosef): If a Kohen knows an impoverished Chacham, he may authorize the Chacham to receive (and eat) Matanos on his behalf.
1. If the Kohen is popular and many people give to him, the Matanos may be given directly to the Chacham.
(i) Rava and Rav Safra visited Mar Yuchna; he slaughtered a choice calf for them. Rava asked Mar Yuchna's servant (a Kohen who used to receive Mar Yuchna's Matanos), "Let us take the jaw on your behalf, so we can eat it with mustard." (Rashi - Rava was a Kohen, but he held (like Abaye) that a Kohen should not request Matanos; Tosfos - Rava was not a Kohen.)
(j) The servant agreed; Rava ate, Rav Safra did not. Rav Safra was shown in a dream, "Worn out clothing on a cold day... v'Shar ba'Shirim Al Lev Ra" (it does not help to teach people that do not understand).
1. Rav Safra (to Rav Yosef): Was I shown this because I did not follow your teaching?
2. Rav Yosef: No - I only said that a Kohen may *choose* to give to a Chacham, but surely this servant was afraid to refuse!
i. Also, I only permit an impoverished Chacham; that was not the case here!
3. Rav Safra: If so, why was I shown this verse?
4. Rav Yosef: It was to rebuke Rava.
i. Question: Why didn't Rava have the dream?
ii. Answer: He was estranged from Heaven (because of what he did).
5. Question (Abaye): What is the simple meaning of the verse?
6. Answer (Rav Dimi): It does not help to teach an improper Talmid.
7. (Rav Yehudah): One who teaches an improper Talmid falls to Gehinom.
8. (Rav Yehudah): Teaching an improper Talmid is like throwing a rock at the idol Markulis (he intends to destroy it - he does not realize that he thereby serves it), "Like tying a rock in a slingshot (something which will not last), so is Nosen li'Chesil Kavod (giving honor, i.e. Torah, to a fool)."
(a) (Mishnah): If a Yisrael is a partner with a Kohen or Nochri in an animal, he must make a sign (so people will know why he does not give Matanos).
(b) Question: Is a sign really needed when a Nochri is a partner?!
1. Contradiction (Beraisa): One who joins with a Kohen must make a sign;
2. One who joins with a Nochri or slaughters Pesulei ha'Mukdashim (a blemished Korban) need not make a sign.

(c) Answer #1: The Beraisa discusses when the Nochri sits in the store (so people realize that he owns a share).
1. Question: Surely, the case of the Kohen is parallel, he also sits in the store - why is a sign needed?
2. Answer: People may think that the Kohen is there to buy.
3. Objection: Likewise, people may think that the Nochri is there to buy!
(d) Answer #2: The Beraisa discusses when the Nochri sits by the money chest (people realize that he owns a share).
1. Question: Surely, also the Kohen sits there - why is a sign needed?
2. Answer: People may think that the Kohen merely guards the money.
3. Question: Likewise, people may think that the Nochri merely guards the money!
4. Answer: It is unlikely that a Yisrael would trust a Nochri with his money.
(e) Answer #3: A Nochri screams about the price, people realize that he owns a share (but a Kohen is quiet).
(f) (Beraisa): If one slaughters Pesulei ha'Mukdashim, he need not make a sign.
(g) Question (Mishnah): Pesulei ha'Mukdashim are sold and slaughtered in the market, the meat may be weighed (this is just like Chulin - people will not know it is exempt from Matanos)!
(h) Answer (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The Beraisa refers to a Korban which is sold from one's house (a blemished Bechor or Ma'aser).
(a) (Rav Huna): If a Kohen owns part of the head, Zero'a or intestines, this exempts from the corresponding Matanah (jaw, Zero'a or stomach);
(b) (Chiya bar Rav): Even if he is a partner in one of these, this exempts from all the Matanos.
(c) Question (against Chiya bar Rav - Beraisa): If a Kohen sold [most of] his animal to a Yisrael, saying, "The head remains mine, the rest is yours," then even if the Kohen retained one part in 100 of the head, it is exempt;
1. If he said, "The Zero'a (or intestines) remains mine, the rest is yours," then even if he retained one part in 100, it is exempt;
2. Suggestion: In each case, he is only exempt from the Matanah which the Kohen kept a part of.
(d) Answer: No, he is exempt from all the Matanos.
(e) Objection #1: If so, the Beraisa should say that he is exempt from all the Matanos!
(f) Objection #2 (Beraisa): If a Kohen sold his animal to a Yisrael, saying, "The head remains mine, the rest is yours," then even if the Kohen retained one part in 100 of the head, it is exempt from giving the jaw; the other Matanos must be given.
1. Chiya bar Rav is refuted.
(g) (Rav Chisda): The following Beraisa misled Chiya.
1. (Beraisa): Twenty-four Matanos were given to Aharon and his sons, they are learned from a Klal Perat u'Klal;
i. Anyone who observes them is considered to have observed every Klal Perat u'Klal in the Torah, and the covenant of salt regarding Korbanos.
2. Ten Matanos are [given and eaten] in the Mikdash - Chatas Behemah and Chatas ha'Of, Asham Vadai (brought for a definite transgression) and Asham Taluy, Shalmei Tzibur (the lambs brought on Shavuos), the [leftovers] of the Log of oil that a Metzora brings, Shtei ha'Lechem (the two loaves brought on Shavuos), Lechem ha'Panim, the leftover part of Menachos, the Omer;
3. Four Matanos are [given/eaten] in Yerushalayim - Bechor of Tahor animals, Bikurim, certain parts of Kodshim Kalim (Chazeh v'Shok of a Todah (or Shelamim), Zero'a of Eil Nazir, and one of each kind of bread accompanying Todah or Eil Nazir), and the skin of Kodshim;
4. (Tosfos cannot explain why skin of Kodshim is considered a Matanah in Yerushalayim - it is given in the Azarah, it may be taken anywhere! Rashi - we only consider Matanos of the Mikdash things that become Pasul if taken outside.)
5. Ten Matanos are given in all parts of Eretz Yisrael - Terumah, Terumas Ma'aser, Chalah, Reishis ha'Gez, Matanos (Zero'a Lechayayim v'Keivah), Pidyon ha'Ben, redemption of firstborn donkeys, Sedeh Achuzah and Sedeh ha'Cherem (if one was Makdish his ancestral field (and did not redeem it before Yovel) or declared it "Cherem," Gezel ha'Ger (something stolen from a convert, if the thief swore falsely and repents after the convert died).
6. Chiya bar Rav assumed that since Matanos are counted like one, they are like one (if one is exempt from one, he is exempt from all);
i. This is wrong - portions of Todah and Eil Nazir are independent, but they were counted like one because they are similar - the same applies to Matanos.
(h) Question: If a Kohen sold the head of his animal to a Yisrael, keeping the rest for himself, must the jaw be given to a Kohen?
1. If we look at the part which must be given - it belongs to a Yisrael, it should be given;
2. If we look at the main part of the animal - it belongs to a Kohen, Matanos need not be given.
(i) Answer (Beraisa): If a Nochri or Kohen asked a Yisrael to shear his sheep, he is exempt from Reishis ha'Gez;
1. If a Yisrael bought the wool on the sheep of a Nochri or Kohen (and sheared it himself), he is exempt;
2. In this respect, Matanos are more stringent than Reishis ha'Gez.
i. This teaches that by Matanos, we consider the part which must be given.
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