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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Chulin 137

CHULIN 137-140 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications for these Dapim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.


(a) (Mishnah): Reishis ha'Gez applies only to sheep.
(b) Question: What is the source of this?
(c) Answer (Rav Chisda): We learn "Gizah-Gizah" from Iyov;
1. Just like there it refers to sheep - "umi'Gez Kevasai Yischamam" - also here.
(d) Question: Why don't we learn "Gizah-Gizah" from Bechor (that it applies even to oxen)!
1. (Beraisa) Question: "Lo Sa'avod bi''Vechor Shorecha v'Lo Sagoz Bechor Tzonecha" - what is the source to forbid working with a Bechor Seh or shearing a Bechor ox?
2. Answer: "Lo Sa'avod...v'Lo Sagoz" (we apply what is said about each to the other).
(e) Answer: "Titen Lo" - give something the Kohen can wear, not ox hair, which is used to make sackcloth.
(f) Question: Goats' wool (which one plucks off goats) is fitting for garments - Reishis ha'Gez should apply to it!
(g) Answer #1: The Torah discusses only Gizah (shearing), not plucking.
(h) Rejection: R. Yosi is the Tana who distinguishes between words that refer to detaching, and he says that the normal method is included [in "Gizah"]!
(i) Answer #2: This is like R. Yehoshua ben Levi, who expounds "la'Amod l'Shares" - it must be fitting for the Techeles of the Kohanim's garments, i.e. sheep's wool.
(j) Question: What do we learn from "Gizah-Gizah"?
(k) Answer (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): Reishis ha'Gez does not apply to sheep whose wool is too hard to make garments [that give warmth] - "umi'Gez Kevasai Yischamam."
(a) (Beraisa #1): If one shears goats or washes sheep (causing wool to come off), Reishis ha'Gez does not apply;
(b) Contradiction (Beraisa #2): If one shears goats he is exempt from Reishis ha'Gez, if he washes sheep, he is liable.
(c) Answer: Beraisa #1 is R. Yosi, Beraisa #2 is Chachamim.
1. (Beraisa): [One must leave for the poor] "Leket Ketzircha" (what falls during harvesting), not Leket of Kituf (plucking);
2. R. Yosi says, "Leket" refers only to what comes through Ketzirah.
3. Question: The first Tana also says this!
4. Answer: The entire Beraisa is R. Yosi, he says "This is because 'Leket' only refers to what comes through Ketzirah.'
(d) (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): R. Yosi admits that "Katzir" includes the normal method.
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi) Question: The Torah says "Katzir" - what is the source to include uprooting?
2. Answer: It says "Liktzor";
3. Question: What is the source to include plucking?
4. Answer: It says "b'Kutzrecha."
(e) Support (Ravina - Mishnah): If there are rows of onions between patches of vegetables, [the vegetables are an interruption, so] Pe'ah must be left for each row;
(f) (Even though onions are not harvested with a scythe, Pe'ah must be left, for the normal way of detaching is included);
1. Chachamim say, one Pe'ah may be left for all the rows.
(a) (Mishnah) Question: What is the quantity [from which Gez must be given]?
(b) Question: We understand Beis Shamai - two sheep are called "Tzon."
1. What is Beis Hillel's reason [to say five]?
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Kahana): "v'Chamesh Tzon *Asuyos*" - two Mitzvos apply to a group of five sheep, i.e. Reishis ha'Gez and Matanos.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps the Mitzvos are Bechor and Matanos!
2. Rejection: Even one Bechor Seh is Kodesh.
(d) Objection: Matanos apply to a single sheep (so we cannot say that two Mitzvos apply only when there are five)!
(e) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): "Asuyos" means, they obligate their owner in a Mitzvah that did not apply to less than five (this must be Reishis ha'Gez).
(f) (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): The Mitzvah applies to four, for four are called "Tzon" - "v'Arba Tzon Tachas ha'Seh."
(g) (Beraisa - Rebbi): Even if Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel learned from Torah verses, and R. Yosi learned from Nevi'im, we would follow R. Yosi;
1. Really, Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel learned from Nevi'im, and R. Yosi learned from Torah - all the more so, we should follow R. Yosi!
(h) Question: [Presumably, the preference for R. Yosi is because he is Machri'a (a mediating opinion),] but a third opinion (Rashi - it introduces an idea that the first two opinions never mentioned; Aruch - of a Tana smaller than the first two) is not a Hachra'ah!

(i) Answer (R. Yochanan): The reason to follow R. Yosi is because he received it from Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi.
(a) (Mishnah): R. Dosa ben Hurkanus says... (Chachamim say, he is liable for any amount.)
(b) Question: What do Chachamim mean by "any amount"?
(c) Answer #1 (Rav): It must be a Maneh (25 Sela'im) and a half (from all five sheep combined).
(d) Answer #2 (Shmuel): It must be 60 Sela'im; he gives one Sela to the Kohen.
(e) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): It must be six Sela'im; he gives five to the Kohen, and keeps one.
(f) Answer #4 (Ula): It is any amount, no matter how small.
(g) (Mishnah): One must give to the Kohen five Sela'im of Yehudah (this is ten of Galil).
(h) Question #1: This refutes Shmuel (who said he gives one to the Kohen) and Ula (who says that any amount is liable)!
(i) Question #2: This is also difficult for Rav!
1. (Rav and Shmuel): One must give (or in the case of Pe'ah, leave) one part in 60 of the following - Gez, Terumah, and Pe'ah.
2. (According to Rav, one must give from a Maneh and a half - but a 60th part is less than a Sela!)
(j) Answer (to both questions - Rav and Shmuel): The Mishnah teaches that if a Yisrael has much shearings and wants to give them to more than one Kohen, he must give to each Kohen five Sela'im.
(a) (Rav and Shmuel): One must give (or leave) one part in 60 of Gez, Terumah, and Pe'ah.
(b) Question (Mishnah): A generous separation of Terumah is one part in 40...
(c) (Rashi - why do they suggest giving like a stingy person?
Tosfos - the Mishnah teaches that one may give one in 60, they did not need to teach this!)
(d) Answer #1: They teach that mid'Oraisa, one must give one in 60; mid'Rabanan, one should give one in 40.
(e) Rejection: Shmuel himself taught that even one blade of wheat exempts the entire stack (mid'Oraisa)!
(f) Answer #2: Mid'Oraisa, one blade exempts the entire stack;
1. Regarding Terumah mid'Oraisa (grain, wine and oil), Chachamim enacted that one should give one in 40;
2. Regarding [other] produce that is liable mid'Rabanan, Chachamim require one to give one in 60.
(g) Question (Mishnah): There is no Shi'ur (fixed quantity) for the following - Pe'ah, Bikurim, the [cost of] the Olah and Shelamim one must bring on each festival.
(h) Answer: Mid'Oraisa, there is no Shi'ur for Pe'ah; mid'Rabanan, it is one in 60.
(i) Question: A Mishnah teaches this!
1. (Mishnah): Even though Pe'ah has no Shi'ur mid'Oraisa, [mid'Rabanan] one must leave one in 60.
(j) Answer: The Mishnah teaches the law in Eretz Yisrael, Rav and Shmuel teach the law in Chutz la'Aretz.
(k) Isi bar Hini was teaching his son "Five Rechelim (sheep)..."
1. R. Yochanan: Why don't you teach "Rechelos"?
2. Isi: The Torah uses this form (when relating Yakov's gift to Esav): "Rechelim Masayim."
(l) Isi called Rav, "Aba (that was Rav's real name), the long one"; R. Yochanan rebuked him for not prefixing a title of respect:
1. R. Yochanan: Rav used to speak in learning with Rebbi - I was 17 rows in back, I could not follow it!
(m) Question (Isi bar Hini): How much shearings obligate giving Reishis ha'Gez?
(n) Answer (R. Yochanan): Sixty Sela'im are liable.
(o) Question (Isi): But the Mishnah says, any amount!
(p) Answer (R. Yochanan): I know the true meaning of the Mishnah ("any amount" is in relation to R. Dosa, who said a much larger quantity).
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