ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Chulin 42
CHULIN 41-43 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in
honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.
***** Perek Eilu Tereifos *****
(a) Our Mishnah lists the eighteen Tereifos. An animal becomes Tereifah -
through a hole in the Veshet or if the majority of the Gargeres is broken
(b) It lists a hole in the membrane that covers the brain and a hole in the
heart. The latter - must penetrate the entire wall through to the hollow.
(c) When the Tana writes 'Nifsekah ha'Shedrah, ve'Nifsak ha'Chut she'Lah' -
he really means just that the spinal cord has snapped, adding that the spine
is broken, only - because it is unusual for the cord to snap without the
(d) An animal with a missing liver is considered a Tereifah - provided none
of it remains.
(a) An animal with - a hole in the lung or with part of the lung missing is
(b) Rebbi Shimon requires the hole to penetrate the Simponos - bronchi
(air-tubes, which are surrounded by capillaries, tiny blood vessels, which
explains why blood flows from the Simponos, when they are cut).
(c) The Tana then lists a group of three internal organs that are punctured,
the Keivah (stomach), the gall-bladder - and the intestines.
(a) The inner Keres (the rumen [one of the stomachs]) renders the animal a
Tereifah via the smallest hole, the outer Keres - if most of it became torn.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah agrees with this latter Shi'ur, only as regards a small
ox. A large one, he maintains - renders the animal a Tereifah with a tear
the size of a Tefach (even though it is less than a majority).
(c) A hole in the Messes (the third stomach of ruminants) or in the Beis
ha'Kosos (the paunch) considered a Tereifah - provided it appears in an
independent section of the lining, not where the two are joined.
(d) In the ruminants, the food goes from the Beis ha'Kosos to the Messes,
1. ... the Messes to the Keivah, and from ...
2. ... the Keivah to the Dakin (the intestines).
(a) The Tana includes in the list an animal that fell off the roof and that
the majority of its ribs are broken - two distinct Tereifos. The first
refers even to an animal where no limbs appear to be broken, and the second,
even to one that did fall at all.
(b) The former is a Safek Tereifah - and must be considered a Tereifah if
one Shechted it immediately (and if it did not stand up after falling).
(c) We consider it Tereifah, even though it does not have any apparent
defect - because we suspect that its limbs have shattered or became
(d) The source of the Tereifos is - Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai.
(a) 'D'rusas ha'Ze'ev' is - where a wolf clawed the animal, rendering it a
Tereifah by means of the poison that it injected into the animal.
(b) The Tana Kama does not differentiate between a small animal and a large
one. Rebbi Yehudah however, maintains - that a large animal only becomes a
Tereifah if it is clawed by a lion, but not by a wolf (whose poison is too
weak to affect a large type animal).
(c) A large bird (a chicken or a goose) requires the claws of a large bird
of prey (such as a goshawk [or a falcon, Aruch]) to render it a Tereifah, a
small bird (a dove or a pigeon) - even through the claws of a small one
(such as a sparrow hawk)
(d) The principle the Tana gives to ascertain that the animal is a Tereifah
is - any defect which an animal cannot normally survive (twelve months).
(a) Resh Lakish learns from the Pasuk "Zos ha'Chayah Asher Tocheilu" - that
one may only eat an animal that can live, but not a Tereifah (which cannot,
as we just explained, as if the Torah had written "Zos Chayah").
(b) We refute the initial version of his question (i.e. where a Tereifah is
hinted in the Torah) - by citing the obvious source (the Pasuk in Mishpatim
"u'Basar ba'Sadeh Tereifah Lo Socheilu" [based on the principle 'Ein Mikra
Yotzei mi'Yedei Peshuto']), even though we learn other things from there,
(c) Those who hold that a Tereifah can live (as will be explained later),
prove it from the same Pasuk - from "Zos", which is otherwise superfluous,
and from which we therefore extrapolate 'This live animal you may eat. There
is however, another live animal (a Tereifah) which you may not'.
(a) Those who hold that a Tereifah cannot live interpret "Zos" like Tana
de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael, who learns from there - that Hashem needed to take
hold of each species mentioned in the Torah and Show Moshe exactly what it
(b) In fact, we conclude, everybody Darshens "Zos" like Tana de'Bei Rebbi
Yishmael. And those who hold that a Tereifah can live, derive their opinion
from the same source as Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael elsewhere - who learn it
from "Bein ha'Chayah ha'Ne'echeles, u'Vein ha'Chayah Asher Lo Se'acheil" (a
reference to Tereifos).
(a) We query our Mishnah, which lists only eighteen Tereifos, omitting
'Basgar and 'Shev Shema'atsa'. We confine the Kashya however, to Tana de'Bei
Rebbi Yishmael, but preclude the Tana Kama. Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael's
presentation differs from that of our Mishnah -inasmuch as he specifically
mentions the number eighteen (which our Tana does not).
(b) The Kashya does not therefore pertain to our Mishnah - because even if
the Tana omits 'Basgar' and Shev Shema'atsa, he includes them in 'Zeh
ha'Kelal' in the Seifa.
(c) 'Basgar' is the acronym for the four cases that we are now about to
discuss. The 'Beis' represents an animal (Beheimah) whose hind legs have
been severed above the knee - which the Tana Kama in a Beraisa considers a
(d) We query the answer that Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael holds like Rebbi
Shimon ben Elazar, who says that such as animal is able to live (if it is
branded at that point, and is therefore not a Tereifah) - on the grounds
that, Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael is the one who holds that a Tereifah can
live in any case, in which case, Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon's statement
does not prove that the animal is not a Tereifah.
(a) Nevertheless, we establish Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael like Rebbi Elazar
b'Rebbi Shimon, who also said that an animal whose hind leg has been severed
above the knee is Kasher - which explains why Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael
omitted it from his list of Tereifos.
(b) The 'Samech' in Basgar represents 'Chesaron be'Shedrah'. In the Mishnah
in Ohalos, Beis Shamai declares it no longer Metamei be'Ohel, if two
vertebrae are missing. According to Beis Hillel - even one will suffice.
(c) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel are arguing over the Shi'ur of Tum'as Ohel,
as we just explained. Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel comments - that they repeat
the same Machlokes with regard to Tereifos, posing the Kashya on Tana de'Bei
Rebbi Yishmael, why he omits the case from his Beraisa.
(d) We answer the Kashya - by taking the two Tereifos of the Messes and the
Beis ha'Kosos listed in our Mishnah and turning them into one, enabling us
to insert 'Chesaron be'Shedrah' instead.
(a) The 'Gimel' in Basgar represents G'ludah, which means - that the entire
skin has been removed.
(b) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael declines to insert it in his list because he
holds like Rebbi Meir, who holds - that a G'ludah is Kasher.
(c) The 'Resh' of Basgar is 'Charusa', which means a dried up lung - which
is Tereifah only if it dried up due to a noise that frightened the animal
that was made by a human being, but not to one caused by a natural
phenomenon (such as thunder), which affects the animal only temporary, in
which case it is not a Tereifah.
(d) The author of the Halachah 'Nikvah ha'Marah, Tereifah' is - Rebbi Meir
(a minority opinion)
(e) This helps us to solve the current problem (concerning why Tana de'Bei
Rebbi Yishmael omits Charusa) - since Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael will then
omit Nikvah Marah and replace it with Charusa.
(a) We ask why Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael omits Shev Shema'atsa (which we
will discuss shortly). They are referred to as 'Shema'atsa' - because (as
opposed to 'Basgar', which all refer to statements of Tana'im), they all
refer to statements of Amora'im.
(b) The first of the Shev Shema'atsa concerns 'Buka de'Atma', the second
'Laksah Kulya' and the third, 'Nikav ha'Techol'. The meaning of ...
1. ... 'Buka de'Atma' Rav Masna explains as - a thigh-bone that became
(c) The Mishnah later will declare 'Nital ha'Techol, Kasher', on which Rav
Avira Amar Rava commented - that if the T'chol (the spleen) became
punctured, it is Tereifah.
2. ... 'Laksah be'Kulya', as Rachish bar Papa in the name of Rav explains,
is - even one kidney that filled up with puss.
(d) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Shmuel declares 'Simanim she'Nidaldelu
be'Rubah' a Tereifah. 'Simanim she'Nidaldelu be'Rubah' means - that the two
pipes became disconnected from their source in a number of places, which in
total, adds up to a majority.
(a) Rabah bar Rav Shilo ... Amar Shmuel teaches us the last three cases of
'Shev Shema'atsa'. He declares Tereifah ...
1. ... a rib - that has been torn from its location.
(b) He refers to 'the majority of the Keres' - because the minority, which
is contained inside the rib-cage, is not covered by a wall of flesh).
2. ... a skull - that has been badly beaten.
3. ... the flesh that covers the majority of the Keres (part of the
abdominal wall that covers the paunch) - is torn.
(c) Shmuel clearly disagrees with the Sugya later, which explains our
Mishnah 'Rov ha'Chitzonah' to mean 'Basar ha'Chofeh es Rov ha'Chitzonah' -
he will explain the Mishnah differently.
(a) We answer the Kashya on Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael by pointing out that
there are eight cases of 'Nekuvi' - which we count as one, replacing the
other seven with the Shev Shema'atsa.
(b) The problem with this is that ...
1. ... by the same token, there are two cases of 'Pesuki', which must then
also be counted as one (leaving us with only seventeen Tereifos).
(c) We finally resolve the eighteen Tereifos of Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael
with 'Basgar' and 'Shev Shema'atsa' by referring to 'Beheimah she'Nechtechah
Raglehah' and 'G'ludah' (both of which we previously precluded from Tana
de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael's list and) - which we will now reinstate, leaving us
with a total of eighteen Tereifos.
2. ... the case of Rav Avira (Nikav ha'Techol) in the name of Rava (one of
the Shev Shema'atsa) is - that it too, cannot be counted independently,
leaving us with only sixteen Tereifos.
(d) We reconcile Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael with the many additional
Tereifos of the lung which we will discuss later in the Perek - by
incorporating them all either in Rei'ah she'Nikvah or Rei'ah she'Chasrah.