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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Chulin 60



(a) When, on one hot summer's day, the Emperor of Rome asked to see Hashem - Rebbi Yehoshua took him outside and instructed him to look up at the sun.

(b) When he replied that he was unable to - Rebbi Yehoshua pointed out to him that if one cannot look at one of Hashem's servants, how could one expect to look at Hashem Himself.

(c) When the Emperor asked to prepare Hashem a meal, he replied that this was impossible - because He has too many servants.

(d) When he nevertheless insisted, Rebbi Yehoshua told him to place the meal that he prepared beside the banks of the River Revisa, where there was plenty of room - though what he really had in mind was that the wind should come and blow it away (as it indeed did).

(a) The food that he spent six months ...
1. ... of summer preparing - was blown into the sea.
2. ... of winter preparing - was washed away by the rain.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua explained to the Emperor - that this was just the servants who swept Hashem's House and who sprinkled water to settle the dust ...

(c) ... so the Emperor relented.

(a) The Emperor's daughter asked Rebbi Yehoshua to request that Hashem makes her a spinning reel - on the basis of the Pasuk in Tehilim "ha'Mekareh Mayim Aliyosav", which implies that Hashem is a carpenter.

(b) When Rebbi Yehoshua acceded to her request and prayed to Hashem on her behalf - she contracted leprosy, whereupon she was given a spinning reel ...

(c) The Romans would give a leper a spinning-reel - for him to undo skeins in the market-place, to attract the attention of passers-by, who would have pity on them and drop them a penny or two.

(d) When Rebbi Yehoshua once passed by, and in reply to his question whether she liked the reel Hashem had given her, she asked him to Daven for Hashem to take back what He had given her, his response was - that Hashem gives, but does not take away.

(a) An ox, said Rav Yehudah, has a broad stomach and wide hooves, a large head and a long tail - whereas a donkey has precisely the opposite (a narrow stomach and narrow hooves, a small head and a short tail).

(b) The ramifications of this statement are - that someone who purchases one of them, can demand either those specifications to be fulfilled, or his money back.

(c) Rav Yehudah extrapolate from the Pasuk "ve'Sitav la'Hashem mi'Shor Par *Makrin* Mafris" - that the bull brought by Adam ha'Rishon had only one horn on its forehead.

(d) Rav Nachman answers the Kashya that "Makrin" implies two horns - by pointing out that it is written without a 'Yud' (implying only one).

(a) Rav Yehudah states that the horn(s?) of the bull that Adam ha'Rishon brought as a Korban - preceded its hooves, even though all other oxen are born with hooves, whereas their horns grow only later.

(b) Rav Yehudah's source for this is - the Pasuk in Tehilim that we just quoted "ve'Sitav la'Hashem mi'Shor Par Makrin Mafris" (first "Makrin" and then "Mafris").

(c) This supports a statement by Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, who said that all the creations of Hashem were created 'be'Komasan'. When he says ...

1. ... 'be'Komasan', he means that they were created fully developed (in which point he is supported by Rav Yehudah, because it is only if they were created fully developed that the horns could have possibly preceded the hooves).
2. ... 'le'Da'atam Nivre'u', he means - that they were created with their consent.
3. ... 'be'Tzivyonam Nivre'u', he means - that they were created in the form that they chose for themselves.
(d) And he extrapolates all three from the Pasuk - "va'Yechulu ha'Shamayim ve'ha'Aretz ve'Chol Tzeva'am" (which implies that they created with their consent and fully developed, and by virtue of the fact that they one can also read it 'be'Tzivyonam', we learn that they were created according to the form that they chose for themselves).
(a) Rav Chanina bar Papa Darshened the Pasuk "Yehi Chevod Hashem Le'olam, Yismach Hashem" - which he ascribed to the angel known as 'Sar ha'Olam' (who, according to some, is Matatron [Hashem's great scribe]).

(b) The double 'Kal va'Chomer' that the vegetation Darshened prompted him to say it. Hashem commanded the trees - to produce its fruit "le'Miyno" (according to its particular species [and not in a mixture]), but not the vegetation.

(c) The first 'Kal va'Chomer' that the vegetation Darshened by the vegetation was that if Hashem had wanted the plants to grow mixed together, He would not have commanded the trees not to do so. The second is - that if Hashem did command the trees not produce the various species of fruit separately, even though the individual fruits on a tree are separate anyway, then how much more so the vegetation, which by nature, grows in profusion.

(d) The connection between the Sar ha'Olam and the Pasuk "Yehi Chevod Hashem Le'olam ... " is - that he said it when he saw how eager Hashem's creations were to carry out His will.

(e) Now that the vegetation did undertake to grow separately, Ravina asked whether - one is Chayav for grafting together two kinds of vegetation (e.g. vegetables or legumes), seeing as at the end of the day, they did undertake to grow separately; or whether one is Patur, seeing as they were not ordered to do so.




(a) Rebbi Shimon ben Pazi's problem with the Pasuk "Va'ya'as Elokim es Sh'nei ha'Me'oros ha'Gedolim" is - that in the very same chapter, the Torah describes the moon as "ha'Ma'or ha'Katan".

(b) Hashem reduced the size of the moon - because it complained that two kings cannot share one crown (presumably in the hope that Hashem would make the sun smaller).

(c) When Hashem told it ...

1. ... to make itself smaller - it objected to being diminished for saying something that was correct.
2. ... to go and rule (to be visible) in the day as well as the night, it retorted - 'of what use is a light in the day'?
3. ... that Yisrael would reckon (their calendar) by it, it replied - that Yisrael would still have to fix its calendar by the sun too, because the seasons (which give rise to leap-years) are determined by the sun.
4. ... that Tzadikim such as Ya'akov, Shmuel (see Rashash) be called 'ha'Katan after it - it declined to be appeased by it.
(d) Hashem's reaction is contained in the D'rashah of Resh Lakish, who learned from the Pasuk "Sa'ir la'Hashem" - that every Rosh Chodesh, Yisrael bring a Korban on behalf of Hashem (for having reduced the size of the moon).
(a) The problem Rav Asi has with the Pasuk "Va'totzei ha'Aretz Deshe" is - that on the sixth day the Pasuk writes that there was no vegetation.

(b) He answers the Kashya - that when the earth produced vegetation, it only spouted as far as the surface, but no further, since there was nobody to pray for the rain that would water it (which came on Friday in the form of a cloud that came from under the ground, after Adam Davened).

(c) He derives from there - that Hashem longs for the Tefilos of Tzadikim?

(d) When Rav Nachman bar Papa planted seeds in his garden - no rain came - until he Davened to Hashem. He commented - that this conformed with what Rav Asi said.

(a) Rav Chanan bar Rava defines a Shesu'ah (one of the Tamei animals specifically mentioned in the Torah) as - an animal with two backs and two spines. The word means - twins.

(b) A Shesu'ah - is actually born from a Kasher animal (see Maharam Shif and Rashash).

(c) From the fact that Moshe knew what a Shesu'ah is, we extrapolate - that the Torah must have been written by Hashem.

(d) We arrive at this conclusion after asking whether Moshe was a 'Kenigni' or a 'Belisteri' - meaning an archer or a sling-shooter (i.e. a hunter).

(a) The problem with the Pasuk which refers to five officers of the P'lishtim is - that the Navi then goes on to list six "ha'Azasi, ha'Ashdodi, ha'Ashkeloni, ha'Giti, ha'Ekroni ve'ha'Avim".

(b) Rebbi Yonasan answers 'Arunki (or Adnarki) she'Lahen Chamishah' - which means 'the chief ones' (or 'the masters'), implying that one of them was not an officer.

(c) Rav Chisda advised Rav Tachlifa bar Avina - to insert the words 'Arunki' and 'Kenigni' and 'Belisteri' (that we cited earlier) in his lexicon.

(d) Rebbi Yonasan in fact, argues with Rav - in whose opinion the Avim came from Teiman (territory belonging to Amalek's brother).

(a) The Beraisa supporting Rav's theory ascribes the name to the fact that their departure caused their country to go to ruin ('Nisaveis'). According to others there, they were called by that name - because they longed ('Ivu', if one changes the 'Ayin' for an 'Alef') to worship many gods (which is why they moved to the land of the P'lishtim).

(b) Yet others explain that their name describes, not the people themselves, but whoever saw them - who were gripped by a fit of trembling (which ended with cramp).

(c) The particularly terrifying aspect of their appearance that Rav Yosef portrays is the fact - that they had sixteen rows of teeth.

(a) When Resh Lakish says that many Pesukim ought to be burned - he is referring to Pesukim that in reality, are of major importance, but that, because they appear to be superfluous, people think ought to be removed from the Torah and burned.

(b) The relevance of the treaty that Avraham entered into with the P'lishtim, at the time of the conquest of Eretz Yisrael was - that grandchildren of Avimelech Melech P'lishtim, whom Avraham had sworn not to harm, were still alive at that time.

(c) When the Torah writes ...

1. ... "ve'ha'Avim ha'Yoshvim ba'Chatzerim ad Azah, Kaftorim ha'Yotz'im mi'Kaftor ... " - the Torah is coming to teach us on what basis we were permitted to capture the land of the Avim (which was forbidden to us, either on account of the treaty between Avraham and Avimelech, or because Yisrael were forbidden to fight with Eisav's descendants. So Hashem sent the Kaftorim to defeat the Avim and capture their land, from whom we were able to capture it.
2. ... "Ki Cheshbon Ir Sichon Melech ha'Emori Hi, ve'Hu Nilcham be'Melech Mo'av ha'Rishon" - to explain why we were permitted to capture lands that had belonged to Mo'av, against whom fighting was prohibited. Now however, we see that Sichon had captured Mo'av's territory, and we captured it from Sichon.
(d) Amon too, became partially permitted through the fact that Sichon captured it - as we learn in Yehoshua. Indeed, Rav Papa taught 'Amon u'Mo'av Tiharu be'Sichon'.
(a) By the same token, the Pasuk "u've'Se'ir Yashvu ha'Chorim" teaches us - that although capturing Se'ir would have been permitted, since there was no prohibition against fighting the Chori who lived there originally, it became forbidden once our brother Eisav had captured it.

(b) Yisrael thought that they were permitted to capture the entire lands of Se'ir, Amon and Mo'av - because they all belonged to the area that was known as 'Eretz Refa'im', which had the same name as that promised to Avraham Avinu.

(c) Hashem disillusioned them however - by informing them that this was not the 'Eretz Refa'im' that He had promised to Avraham (see also Ramban on the Chumash).

(d) The seemingly meaningless Pasuk ...

1. ... (in connection with Har Chermon) "Tzidonim Yikre'u le'Chermon S'iryon, ve'ha'Emori Yikre'u Lo S'nir" - teaches us the tremendous importance that the nations of the world attached to Eretz Yisrael, when we see how the Tzidonim acquired a portion there, and gave it one name, whilst the Emori acquired a potion on the same mountain and gave it another name (in fact, both names mean 'snow' in their respective languages [see also Rashi on the Chumash]).
2. ... "Ve'es ha'Am He'evir Oso le'Arim" - teaches us - Yosef's foresight in ensuring that when his brothers arrived in Egypt, nobody would be able to refer to them as exiles, since the Egyptians themselves were all exiles.
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