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ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) [line 5] ORAISA NEVI'EI U'CHESUVEI, D'AMAR RAV HACHI! - I swear by the
Torah, by the Prophets, and by the Kesuvim (Holy Writings) that Rav said it!
2) [line 13] SHABBOS GOREMES - the situation that exists when Shabbos begins
dictates the Halachah for the duration of Shabbos. As a result: (a) when
three people enclose an area larger than a Beis Se'asayim and one of them
dies on Shabbos, it is permissible to carry in the additional area (i.e.
area more than a Beis Se'asayim) for the entire Shabbos even according to
Rebbi Yehudah, even though only two people remain; (b) when two people
enclose an area greater than a Beis Se'asayim, it is prohibited to carry in
the *entire* area according to Rebbi Yehudah, even if more people join them
3) [line 14] DIYURIN GORMIN - the number of people presently dwelling in the
enclosure dictates the Halachah. As a result: (a) when three people enclose
an area larger than a Beis Se'asayim and one of them dies on Shabbos, it is
prohibited to carry in the *entire* area according to Rebbi Yehudah; (b)
when two people enclose an area greater than a Beis Se'asayim and they are
joined by more people on Shabbos, it is then permissible to carry in the
additional area (i.e. area more than a Beis Se'asayim) according to
4) [line 14] TISTAYEM - conclude
5a) [line 37] MACHANEH - a camp of soldiers on their way to battle
b) [line 37] M"M - mi'Kol Makom (from anywhere)
6) [line 38] DEMAI
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his
Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" =
"what is this?").
(b) Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce
since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them
before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its stringency) is
presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are
separated from the produce, but eaten by the owner (in keeping with the
principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").
7) [line 45] SHE'YEHU MAR'IN B'CHORASHIN - that people should be permitted
to graze their animals in forests that belong to others. This applies to
small animals such as sheep and goats, in forests where most of the trees
have thick branches (RAMBAM Hilchos Nizkei Mamon 5:3)
8a) [line 46] HIZMEI - prickly shrubs or trees
b) [line 46] HEIGEI - prickly bushes
9) [last line] MES MITZVAH KONEH MEKOMO
(a) When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his
relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes
Mitzvah. person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM
Hilchos Avel 3:8)
(b) The body must be buried where it is found; it "acquires the place where
it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field, it is buried there.
However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it
must be buried in the community cemetery. (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7)
10) [line 4] SERATYA - a wide street
11) [line 5] MEFANEIHU - he removes it
12a) [line 6] SEDEH VUR - an uncultivated filed
b) [line 6] SEDEH NIR - a plowed field
13) [line 10] MUTAL AL HA'MEITZAR - lying on the path that is between two
14) [line 16] MELACH SEDOMIS - salt from the Dead Sea
15) [line17] UMISHTAKCHA K'KURTA B'CHURA - and it is found in the proportion
of one grain in a Kur (i.e. it is very rare)
16) [line 18] KAYIL MILCHA - if he measured salt
17) [line 21] ACHSANYA - (a) a Jewish army (RASHI here and in Berachos 47a);
(b) a Jewish guest (TOSFOS Berachos ibid. DH u'Ma'achilin, RAMBAM Hilchos
Ma'aser 10:11); (c) a non-Jewish army (TOSFOS ibid. and here DH v'Es)
18) [line 26] EIRUVEI TECHUMIN
(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately
960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the
differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not
in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he
must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of one food that would be used
for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the
direction in which he wishes to walk. location where his food is placed
is considered his new dwelling for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk
2000 Amos in any direction from there.
19) [line 32] LAV SHE'NITAN L'AZHARAS MISAS BEIS DIN
(a) A person is punished with 39 lashes (Malkos) when he transgresses
negative commandments of the Torah, with certain exceptions.
(b) One category of negative commandments for which one is *not* given
Malkos is "Lav she'Nitan l'Azharas Misas Beis Din" ("a negative commandment
that was given as a warning for capital punishment"). Torah only
prescribes capital punishment after writing a specific prohibition not to do
a certain act. In such cases, the negative commandment is only written as a
prerequisite for administering capital punishment, and not to give the
offender Malkos.refore, when a person does a capital offense and is
warned that he will incur Malkos, he is neither executed nor given Malkos.
*****PEREK #2 OSIN PASIN*****
20) [line 38] OSIN PASIN LA'BEIRA'OS (PASEI BEIRA'OS)
(a) Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help Jews keep the
Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays
of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks
for the springs).
(b) If a well is four by four Tefachim wide and ten Tefachim deep, it is
considered to be a Reshus ha'Yachid. If it is located in the middle of
Reshus ha'Rabim, one may not draw water from the well (= Reshus ha'Yachid)
and set the bucket down at the edge of the pit (= Reshus ha'Rabim) for an
animal to drink. A person may only drink from the well by climbing *into*
the well, and drinking its water while in the well.
(c) By placing four corner pieces around the well (each made of two planks
one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, set perpendicular to each other), the
area enclosed by the planks is considered to be a 4-walled Reshus ha'Yachid
and the open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a full wall. It
is therefore permitted for a person to set a bucket of water drawn from the
well at a point enclosed by the planks, and bring his animal (or most of it)
within that area to drink from the water.
(d) The corner pieces were placed 10 Amos apart according to Rebbi Meir and
13 1/3 Amos apart according to Rebbi Yehudah. To enclose an area larger than
10 or 13 1/3 Amos, extra planks must be added between the corner pieces to
shorten the gaps between them.
21) [line 38] DIOMDIN - v-shaped corner pieces, each made of two planks
(Deyo Amudin) one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, that are set
perpendicular to each other
22) [line 39] NIR'IN KI'SHEMONAH - that appear as eight planks, two in each
23) [line 43] SHTEI REVAKOS - two teams of threshing cattle
24) [line 45] ACHAS NICHNESES V'ACHAS YOTZES - one group entering between
the planks towards the spring and one group exiting