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Eruvin 17

ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 5] ORAISA NEVI'EI U'CHESUVEI, D'AMAR RAV HACHI! - I swear by the Torah, by the Prophets, and by the Kesuvim (Holy Writings) that Rav said it!

2) [line 13] SHABBOS GOREMES - the situation that exists when Shabbos begins dictates the Halachah for the duration of Shabbos. As a result: (a) when three people enclose an area larger than a Beis Se'asayim and one of them dies on Shabbos, it is permissible to carry in the additional area (i.e. area more than a Beis Se'asayim) for the entire Shabbos even according to Rebbi Yehudah, even though only two people remain; (b) when two people enclose an area greater than a Beis Se'asayim, it is prohibited to carry in the *entire* area according to Rebbi Yehudah, even if more people join them on Shabbos

3) [line 14] DIYURIN GORMIN - the number of people presently dwelling in the enclosure dictates the Halachah. As a result: (a) when three people enclose an area larger than a Beis Se'asayim and one of them dies on Shabbos, it is prohibited to carry in the *entire* area according to Rebbi Yehudah; (b) when two people enclose an area greater than a Beis Se'asayim and they are joined by more people on Shabbos, it is then permissible to carry in the additional area (i.e. area more than a Beis Se'asayim) according to Rebbi Yehudah

4) [line 14] TISTAYEM - conclude
5a) [line 37] MACHANEH - a camp of soldiers on their way to battle
b) [line 37] M"M - mi'Kol Makom (from anywhere)

6) [line 38] DEMAI
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance - see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" = "what is this?").
(b) Terumas Ma'aser, and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling it. Terumah Gedolah, however, (because of its stringency) is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but eaten by the owner (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

7) [line 45] SHE'YEHU MAR'IN B'CHORASHIN - that people should be permitted to graze their animals in forests that belong to others. This applies to small animals such as sheep and goats, in forests where most of the trees have thick branches (RAMBAM Hilchos Nizkei Mamon 5:3)

8a) [line 46] HIZMEI - prickly shrubs or trees
b) [line 46] HEIGEI - prickly bushes

(a) When a dead Jew is found unattended and an attempt to determine who his relatives are brings about no response, the dead body is called a Mes Mitzvah. person who found the body is obligated to bury it. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 3:8)
(b) The body must be buried where it is found; it "acquires the place where it rests." Even if it is found in the middle of a field, it is buried there. However, if the body is found within 2000 Amos of a Jewish community, it must be buried in the community cemetery. (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Mes 8:7)


10) [line 4] SERATYA - a wide street
11) [line 5] MEFANEIHU - he removes it
12a) [line 6] SEDEH VUR - an uncultivated filed
b) [line 6] SEDEH NIR - a plowed field
13) [line 10] MUTAL AL HA'MEITZAR - lying on the path that is between two fields
14) [line 16] MELACH SEDOMIS - salt from the Dead Sea
15) [line17] UMISHTAKCHA K'KURTA B'CHURA - and it is found in the proportion of one grain in a Kur (i.e. it is very rare)

16) [line 18] KAYIL MILCHA - if he measured salt
17) [line 21] ACHSANYA - (a) a Jewish army (RASHI here and in Berachos 47a); (b) a Jewish guest (TOSFOS Berachos ibid. DH u'Ma'achilin, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser 10:11); (c) a non-Jewish army (TOSFOS ibid. and here DH v'Es)

18) [line 26] EIRUVEI TECHUMIN
(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of one food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there.

(a) A person is punished with 39 lashes (Malkos) when he transgresses negative commandments of the Torah, with certain exceptions.
(b) One category of negative commandments for which one is *not* given Malkos is "Lav she'Nitan l'Azharas Misas Beis Din" ("a negative commandment that was given as a warning for capital punishment"). Torah only prescribes capital punishment after writing a specific prohibition not to do a certain act. In such cases, the negative commandment is only written as a prerequisite for administering capital punishment, and not to give the offender Malkos.refore, when a person does a capital offense and is warned that he will incur Malkos, he is neither executed nor given Malkos.

*****PEREK #2 OSIN PASIN*****

(a) Chazal instituted various lenient rulings in order to help Jews keep the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). One of these is called Pasei Bira'os (planks for the springs).
(b) If a well is four by four Tefachim wide and ten Tefachim deep, it is considered to be a Reshus ha'Yachid. If it is located in the middle of Reshus ha'Rabim, one may not draw water from the well (= Reshus ha'Yachid) and set the bucket down at the edge of the pit (= Reshus ha'Rabim) for an animal to drink. A person may only drink from the well by climbing *into* the well, and drinking its water while in the well.
(c) By placing four corner pieces around the well (each made of two planks one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, set perpendicular to each other), the area enclosed by the planks is considered to be a 4-walled Reshus ha'Yachid and the open space between them is considered a "doorway" in a full wall. It is therefore permitted for a person to set a bucket of water drawn from the well at a point enclosed by the planks, and bring his animal (or most of it) within that area to drink from the water.
(d) The corner pieces were placed 10 Amos apart according to Rebbi Meir and 13 1/3 Amos apart according to Rebbi Yehudah. To enclose an area larger than 10 or 13 1/3 Amos, extra planks must be added between the corner pieces to shorten the gaps between them.

21) [line 38] DIOMDIN - v-shaped corner pieces, each made of two planks (Deyo Amudin) one Amah wide and ten Tefachim tall, that are set perpendicular to each other

22) [line 39] NIR'IN KI'SHEMONAH - that appear as eight planks, two in each corner
23) [line 43] SHTEI REVAKOS - two teams of threshing cattle
24) [line 45] ACHAS NICHNESES V'ACHAS YOTZES - one group entering between the planks towards the spring and one group exiting

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