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Previous dafEruvin 58
1) [line 3] MEKADRIN BE'HARIM - lit., we bore a hole through the mountain
when we measure it; i.e. we measure the span of the mountain ignoring part
of its altitude. This is done by using a rope which is only four Amos long.
One person holds the rope at the level of his heart while the person higher
up the slope holds the rope at the level of his feet. In this way, the
height of the mountain is reduced by half of the height of a person for
every four Amos of the span of the mountain.
2) [line 13] AFSEKIMA - [a rope made of] twisted palm leaves
3) [line 13] NARGILA - coconut-palm, whose flexible fibrous bark is used for
4) [line 14] DIKLA D'CHAD NEVARA - [the fibrous substance that appear like
the tendrils (O.F. vedille) of vines that are located just under the surface
of] a palm which has only one covering of flexible fibrous bark
5) [line 21] L'TAR'EI - for [the measuring of] gates
6) [line 22] MEGEG - a species of reed; (O.F. jonc) rush - a water-side
plant with a slender, tapering, pith-filled stem, used for weaving baskets,
7) [line 24] NETZER - (a) peeled willow; (b) the fibrous substance under the
bark of a palm tree
8) [line 23] L'PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a) The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow is burned on Har
ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei
Mes. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisom, opposite the
gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is
slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash
seven times. A cedar branch, some hyssops (Ezov) and a piece of crimson wool
are burned along with the cow. (Bamidbar 19:1-22)
(b) If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching a *Mes*, he must
wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have
spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled
on him. A person who is Tahor dips three hyssops which have been bound
together into the mixture and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On
the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on
him to complete his Taharah.
9) [line 24] MA'ARACHASAH - the pyre of wood on which it was burned
10) [line 24] SOTAH
(a) A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery because she
was warned by her husband not to seclude herself with a certain man and she
violated the warning. The husband must bring his wife to the Beis
ha'Mikdash, along with a sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2
quarts) of barley meal as a Minchah offering.
(b) The Kohen reads Parshas Sotah, the portion of the Torah describing the
curses with which a Sotah is cursed, out loud (in any language that the
Sotah understands) and makes the Sotah swear that she has been faithful to
her husband. Many actions are done to humiliate her, including ripping her
clothes and tying them together with a rope made of Netzarim.
(c) An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the
Kiyor, and dirt from the floor of the Azarah is placed on top of the water.
Parshas Sotah (which contains numerous appearances of HaSh-m's name), is
written on parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to
dissolve and the holy name to be erased. The woman then drinks from the
water. If she had been unfaithful to her husband, the water enters her body
and causes her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was
faithful to her husband, she remains unharmed and is blessed with children
*11*) [line 26] SHEL PISHTAN L'MEDIDAH - Rav Yosef is arguing with Rav Asi,
who said earlier that we use a rope of Afsekima for measuring Techumim
12) [line 29] V'TZOFEH KENEGED MIDASO - if the wadi is wider than 50 Amos at
the point along the line where the Techum is being measured, but is 50 Amos
wide at a point to the right or left of the line, the people who are
measuring the Techum walk to the narrow part, are Mavli'a (pass) the wadi,
and continue measuring the Techum along that line. They measure until they
are parallel with the point where the wadi ends (when coming from the
direction that the Techum was originally measured). They then walk back to
that point and continue measuring until they finish the 2000-Amah
13) [line 34] GAI ME'UKAM - (a) a wadi with sloping walls which are easy to
climb; (b) a wadi that extends around a city on two sides
14) [line 35] YIKOV HA'KOSEL - that is, Mavli'a
15) [last line] EIN CHUT HA'MISHKOLES YORED KENEGDO - a plumb line does not
go straight down (but extends a horizontal distance of four Amos from the
top of the line)
17) [line 1] MODEDO MEDIDAH YAFAH - he measures it a proper measuring. (That
is, he must go down into the wadi and measure its width and then ascend the
other side of the wadi and continue to measure from the edge of the wadi.
The slope of the wadi is not measured at all.)
18) [line 11] ARBA - four Amos
19) [line 13] ASARAH MI'TOCH ARBA - ten Tefachim within a distance of four
20) [line 14] MODEDO MEDIDAH YAFAH - he measures it with an *exact*
21) [line 23] NEKITINAN - we have a tradition
22) [line 26] EGLAH ARUFAH
(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Israel) and it is not known
who the murderer is, the Torah (Devarim 21:1) requires that an Eglah Arufah
be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled.
(b) Five elders of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "supreme
court") measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it
to determine which city is closest to it. When measuring these distances,
they measure the entire length of the slope of the mountains or valleys,
since these measurements are mid'Oraisa.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female
calf that has never been worked to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream
- RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI) and strike
it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal
column, gullet and windpipe.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our
hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]."
(Devarim 21:7) This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent
away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper
accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people
Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for]
innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael." (ibid. 21:8) After this
procedure HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was
spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).
23) [line 27] AREI MIKLAT (Cities of Refuge)
(a) A person who murders intentionally after having been previously warned
is liable to the death penalty. A person who murders unintentionally is
exempt from the death penalty, but is punished with Galus (banishment).
(b) When it is proven that a person killed unintentionally, he is banished
to one of the six Arei Miklat (Cities of Refuge) or one of the forty-two
cities of the Leviyim. He must stay there and not leave the city or its
Techum for any reason whatsoever until the death of the Kohen Gadol who
served at the time that he was sentenced to banishment.
(c) When the Techum of one of these cities is measured, the entire length of
the slope of the mountains or valleys is measured, since this measurement is
(d) If the unintentional murderer leaves his City of Refuge, the Go'el
ha'Dam (the closest relative of the murdered person) is permitted to avenge
the death of his relative and kill the murderer.
24) [line 28] ELA MUMCHEH - (a) only an expert in measuring (RASHI); (b)
according to the Girsa of RABEINU CHANANEL (which is the Girsa of our
Mishnah) ELA *MIN HA'MUMCHEH* - (1) only on level, straight ground (RABEINU
CHANANEL, RIF); (2) in a line that is straight out from the city (RABEINU