ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafEruvin 28
ERUVIN 26-29 has been sponsored by Rabbi and Mrs. Eli
Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel
(a) A Sheretz is a small creature that, due to uts closeness to the ground,
is not noticed until it begins to crawl on the ground.
(b) There are three kinds of Sheretz: an earth-Sheretz, a water-Sheretz and
(a) Birds were created from mud, a mixture of earth and water; they are
called 'Gidulei Karka' because they feed from the produce of the earth.
1. The first Beraisa explains that we begin with the 'P'rat u'Ch'lal' (to
say that we include everything with the K'lal, to permit everything in what
may be purchased with Ma'aser Sheni money); the *first* K'lal then comes to
indicate that we limit the last K'lal to include things that are similar to
the K'lal in at least *two points* out of the three that the P'rat
incorporates ('P'ri mi'Pri' and 'Gidulei Karka') i.e. birds (which are not
V'lad V'lados ha'Aretz - since they were created from mud). Consequently,
fish, which are not Gidulei Karka either, (and similar to the P'rat in only
*two* point) are precluded.
2. The second Beraisa explains that we start with the 'K'lal u'F'rat',
meaning that we begin by excluding everything not included in the P'rat.
However, the last K'lal indicates that we should include at least those
things that are similar to it in all three points, to preclude even birds -
and certainly fish.
(a) The Gemara may also permit the use of coriander for the Eruv even of
someone who does *not* have children - However, using it is permitted, since
it is fit for someone who *does*. Alternatively, Rav (who permits it) is
referring to Median coriander, which is healthy, and therefore does not have
the harmful effects that other coriander has.
(b) Initially, we thought that Rav changed his mind when he arrived in
Bavel, and saw how the Babylonians ate young crops.
(a) People would normally sow beans, barley and fenugreek for their seed,
not for their herbage - Consequently, even if someone *did* sow them for
their herbage, they will still be Patur from Ma'aser, because 'Batlah Da'ato
Etzel Kol ha'Adam'.
(b) Cress and the rocket-plant were Chayav either way - because people
tended to sow them for the herbage as well as for the seeds.
(c) The Gemara concludes that Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, who permitted young
crops to be used for an Eruv - was speaking about garden crops, as opposed
to field crops, which Rav forbade above.
(a) Rebbi Zeira maintained that the Berachah over hops should be 'Shehakol'
- because, in his opinion, they grow from the air (like mushrooms).
(b) This however, is not correct. In fact, they grow from the ground. The
proof for this is, that when one kills the bushes on which the hops grow,
the hops die too.
(c) The reason that one recites a Shehakol over young crops - is because
that is the Berachah that one recites over something that is not yet ripe.
(a) Kafni'os-dates - may be bought with Ma'aser Sheni money, and are Metamei
(b) Rebbi Yehudah holds that, as far as Tum'as Ochlin goes, Kafni'os-dates
are considered fruit in all regards.
(c) Nischani - are small 'male'-dates which have reached their full growth.
Rav is speaking about small 'female'-dates, which have yet to grow to their
full size, and which can therefore not be used for an Eruv.
(d) If the Beraisa is speaking about 'Nischani', why does Rebbi Yehudah
exempt them from Ma'asros.
(a) The Tana Kama renders even 'female'-dates fit to be Metamei Tum'as
Ochlin - because, although they are currently bitter, and cannot really be
termed a food, it is nevertheless possible to remedy this by sweetening them
on the fire.
(b) Food that is used for an Eruv, must be fit to use as it is, without any
(c) The reason that they are Patur from Ma'aser - is because they are not
fully-grown (which is not affected by the fact that the they can be
(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa holds that bitter almonds are Chayav
Ma'aser when they are small - when they are considered a complete fruit,
since, when they are fully-grown, they have become bitter, and are no
(b) Sweet almonds are Chayav Ma'aser only when they are fully-grown, when
the fruit is considered complete, but prior to that, not.
(c) According to the Halachah, all bitter almonds are Patur from Ma'aser -
even when they are small, since they are not fully-grown, and are not
therefore, considered a fruit.
(d) One Tana obligates taking Ma'aser even from fully-grown bitter-almonds -
because they can be sweetened on the fire - as we learned above, with regard
to Tum'as Ochlin.
(a) If the Tana Kama's reason for considering Kor to be subject to Tum'as
Ochlin, is because it was cooked and treated - then why would Rebbi Yehudah
argue with this? Have we not learnt a Beraisa which considers skin which was
cooked, subject to Tum'as Ochlin (and Rebbi Yehudah does not dispute that )
- how much more so Kor, which is initially considered a food?
(b) The Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama, the Gemara
concludes - is with regard to the Berachah. The Tana Kama holds that, since
the Kor is now soft, it is a fruit and one recites the Berachah 'Borei P'ri
ha'Etz'; whereas, according to Rebbi Yehudah, since it stands to become
hard, it is not considered a fruit, in which the Berachah is 'Shehakol'.
(c) Shmuel proves Rav correct, from a radish - which stands to become hard,
yet one recites over it 'Borei P'ri ha'Adamah'.
(d) The Gemara reject this proof however - because one cannot compare Kor,
which is not planted for its edible qualities, to a radish, which *is* (in
fact, the Gemara rules like Shmuel).
(a) A handful of hops - is the amount needed for an Eruv.
(b) The quantity of young crops that are needed for an Eruv - is a farmer's
(c) All commodities used for an Eruv - must be the amount that is usually
used for two meals.
(a) The Gemara understood 'Kalya' to mean a hard stalk of grass -
Consequently, it could not understand how Rav Chilkiya bar Tuvi could permit
such a thing to be used for an Eruv.
(b) 'Yarka de'Kalya' - is a kind of vegetable (see Rabeinu Chananel). One
handful is required for an Eruv.
(c) The same Shiur of a handful is required for wet-beans.
(d) Raw beets are fine for an Eruv - it is half-cooked beets, the Gemara
concludes, that killed a man.