POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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1) READING THE TORAH IN THE CONGREGATION
(a) Answer (R. Yitzchak Nafcha): The next priorities to read
are: Chachamim Question (People of Galil): Who reads
after the Kohen and Levi?
2) WRITING PORTIONS OF THE TORAH
(b) appointed over the congregation; Chachamim fitting to be
appointed; children of the appointed Chachamim; the heads
of the congregation; everyone else.
(c) Question (People of Galil): May we read in synagogue from
a scroll which only contains 1 of the 5 books of the
(d) Answer #1 (Rabanan): We may learn from the following.
1. (R. Yochanan): A Sefer Torah missing a column - we
may not read from it in synagogue.
(e) Rejection: That is no proof - there, the Sefer is
deficient; here, the Sefer (of 1 book) is complete!
(f) Answer #2 (Rabah and Rav Yosef): We may not read - it is
dishonorable to the congregation.
(g) (Rabah and Rav Yosef): We may not read from a scroll
containing (only) the portions of the prophets read as
the Haftorah, for it is forbidden to write such a Sefer.
1. (Mar bar Rav Ashi): One may not even move it on
Shabbos, for it is not fitting to be read from!
(h) Rejection: The law is not as these opinions; rather, we
may move and read from such a Sefer (as we see from the
1. R. Yochanan and Reish Lakish read from a Sefer of
Agadta on Shabbos.
2. Question: But it is forbidden to write the oral Law!
3. Answer: Since there was no alternative (the
teachings were in danger of being forgotten), they
could be written - "At a time to act for Hash-m,
they annulled Your Torah".
4. Similarly, we may write and use a Sefer of the
Haftorah portions (since congregations cannot afford
complete Seforim of the prophets).
(a) Question (Abaye): May one write a portion (less than 1
book) of the Torah, to teach a child?
1. This question may be asked according to the opinion
that the Torah was given portion by portion, and
also according to the opinion that the Torah was
(b) Answer #1 (Rabah): According to both opinions, it may not
2. According to the opinion that the Torah was given
portion by portion - we should likewise be allowed
to write 1 portion;
i. Or perhaps, once the Torah was finalized, it
can no longer be written piecemeal!
3. According to the opinion that the Torah was given
complete - likewise, we may only write complete
i. Or perhaps, since there is no alternative (for
people that cannot write a full Sefer), a
single portion may be written.
1. Question (Mishnah): Queen Hilni made a gold tablet
on which the portion of Sotah was written (for the
Kohanim to copy from).
(c) Answer #2: Tana'im argue whether a portion of the Torah
may be written to teach a child.
2. Answer (Reish Lakish): Only the first letter of each
word was written.
3. Question (Beraisa): The Kohen (that is copying the
portion) looks at the tablet and writes what is
written in the tablet.
4. Answer: It means, he writes according to what is
written in the tablet.
5. Question (Beraisa): It is written in the tablet "If
a man lied (with you)...if a man did not lie".
6. Answer: Only the first word of each verse is
properly written in the tablet; by the other words,
only the initial letters are written.
1. (Beraisa): One may not write a portion of the Torah,
to teach a child;
(d) (R. Yochanan): The Torah was given portion by portion -
"In a scroll of a Sefer it is written about me".
2. R. Yehudah says, One may write from "In the
beginning" until the generation of the flood; one
may write from the beginning of Sefer Vayikra until
"On the eighth day".
(e) (Reish Lakish): The Torah was given complete - "Take this
1. Question: How does R. Yochanan explain this verse?
2. Answer: It was only said after the Torah was
3. Question: How does Reish Lakish explain the verse R.
Yochanan learned from?
4. Answer #1: The entire Torah is also called a scroll
- "I see a scroll flying".
5. Answer #2: Only 8 portions, which were taught on the
day the Mishkan was inaugurated, were written
6. (R. Levi): The following 8 portions were written on
the day the Mishkan was inaugurated:
i. The special prohibitions of Kohanim;
ii. The Parsha of the Levi'im (that they will
assist the Kohanim);
iii. That people Tamei on Pesach bring the Pesach
sacrifice on Pesach Sheni (Rashi; Tosfos - that
Tamei people may not touch Kodshim);
iv. The expulsion of Tamei people from the camps;
v. That only the Kohen Gadol may enter the Kodesh
ha'Kodoshim, during the Yom Kipur service.
3) ENACTMENTS FOR THE SAKE OF SHALOM
(f) (R. Elazar): The majority of the Torah is written, the
minority is oral - "I will write for (Yisrael) most of My
vi. The prohibition for a Kohen to serves while
vii. The lighting of the Menorah;
viii.The red heifer.
(g) (R. Yochanan): The majority of the Torah is oral, the
minority is written - "Al Pi (according to - literally,
by the mouth) these words" (the covenant was made).
1. Question: How does R. Yochanan explain R. Elazar's
(h) Question (R. Yehudah bar Nachmani): One verse says "Write
these words"; another says "Al Pi these words" (they
should be oral)!
2. Answer: Hash-m asks in astonishment - "Should I
write for him most of My Torah - he considers it
3. Question: How does R. Elazar explain the verse R.
Yochanan learned from?
4. Answer: The covenant was on the oral Torah, for it
is harder to learn.
(i) Answer (R. Yehudah bar Nachmani): You may not say written
Torah by heart; you may not recite oral Torah by reading
it (Rashi's text - you may not write oral Torah).
(j) (Beraisa - Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael): "These" - Words of
Torah you may write, but you may not write laws.
(k) (R. Yochanan): Hash-m only made a covenant with Yisrael
on account of the oral Torah - "Al Pi these words I made
a covenant with you and with Yisrael".
(a) (Mishnah): The Eiruv is placed in the same house (as it
used to be) for the sake of Shalom.
(b) Question: Why must this be done to ensure Shalom?
1. Suggestion: Because of the honor of the original
(c) Answer: Rather, so people will not see it missing from
its usual place, and suspect that people carrying in the
courtyard are transgressing.
2. Rejection: The shofar (sounded on Erev Shabbos; some
say, a collection box for money to support the
Yeshivah) of Pumbadisa was originally in Rav
Yehudah's home; it later passed to that of Rabah,
then Rav Yosef, then Abaye, then Rava!
(d) (Mishnah): The pit closest to the irrigation channel
takes water first...
(e) (Rav): The people downstream on a river drink from it
(f) (Shmuel): The people upstream drink first.
1. All agree that anyone may take whenever he wants as
the river flows; they argue regarding damming up the
river to irrigate one's fields.
(g) Question (against Rav - Mishnah): The pit closest to the
irrigation channel takes water first for the sake of
2. Shmuel says that the upstream people have priority,
for the water comes to them first.
3. Rav says that the downstream people have priority -
they may claim, the river should be allowed to flow
(and no one cares what happens further downstream).
(h) Answer (Shmuel, on behalf of Rav): The case is, the
channel passes over the pit.
(i) Question: If so, it is obvious that they take first!
(j) Answer: One might have thought, the others can tell him
to cover his pit and draw with a bucket (as they do) - we
hear, they cannot.
(k) (Rav Huna bar Tachlifa): Since the law was not decided as
either opinion, the strongest party wins.
(l) Rav Simi bar Ashi told Abaye that he would irrigate his
fields for him, in order that Abaye would have time to
learn with him.
1. Rav Simi told the upstream people that the law is
that the people downstream drink first; he told the
downstream people that the upstream people drink
first. He dammed the river and irrigated Abaye's
(m) There were certain people that used to detour a river so
it would irrigate their fields. People upstream
complained that this caused flooding upstream.
2. Abaye was upset; he did not eat from the fruit of
the fields that year.
1. Abaye: The upstream people should dig to deepen the
river to avoid the flooding.
2. The upstream people: If we do so, when the river is
low, it will not irrigate our fields!
3. Abaye: If so, the downstream people may not reroute
the river (Rashi; R. Chananel - the upstream people