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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Horayos 12

HORAYOS 12-14 - One week of study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.



(a) Besides the Shemen ha'Mishchah and the flask containing the Man - Aharon's stick (with its almonds and blossoms) as well as the box containing the golden mice, which the P'lishtim sent Yisrael as a gift) were hidden together with the Aron.

(b) Yoshiyah Hamelech ordered the Levi'im to hide them.

(c) It was when Yoshiyahu read the Pasuk "Yolech Hashem Oscha ve'es Malk'cha ... ", foretelling the Galus - that he hid them ...

(d) ... because he realized that once they carried them into Galus, they would not return them in the near future (see also Tosfos ha'Rosh).

(a) Rebbi Elazar learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
1. ... "ve'No'adti Lecha Sham Ve'dibarti Itcha me'al ha'Kapores" ("Ve'no'adti *Shamah* li'Venei Yisrael") "Ve'sein *Shamah* Me'lo ha'Omer Man" - that just as Yoshiyahu hid the Aron, so too, did he hide the flask of Man.
2. ... "Ve'hanach Oso Lifnei Hashem le'Mishmeres *le'Doroseichem*" "Shemen Mishchas Kodesh Yih'yeh Zeh Li *le'Doroseichem*" - that just as he hid the flask of Man, so too, did he hide the Shemen ha'Mishchah.
3. ... "*le'Mishmeres* le'Doroseichem" "*le'Mishmeres* le'Os li'Venei Meri" - that just as he hid the Shemen ha'Mishchah, so too, did he hide Aharon's stick.
(b) The problem with the earlier statement that Yeho'achaz was anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah is - that by that time, the anointing oil had already been hidden (by Yeho'achaz' father), so how could they use it to anoint Yeho'achaz?

(c) Rav Papa solves this problem - by establishing the oil that they used to anoint Ye'ho'achaz as Afarsemon oil (as we explained earlier).

(d) The Beraisa describes how kings and Kohanim Gedolim were anointed. The former were anointed in the shape of a crown - the latter, like a Greek 'Chi' (like an x, as Rebbi Menashya bar Gada explains).

(a) Everyone agrees that they would pour oil on the incumbent's head and place oil [equivalent to anointing] between his eye-lashes). One Tana learns from the Pasuk "Va'yitzok mi'Shemen ha'Mishchah al Rosh Aharon, Va'yimshach Oso Le'kadsho" - that they poured first and placed afterwards.

(b) The Tana who gives precedence to the anointing, and who learns it from the Holy vessels, which they anointed (without pouring at all), explain the above Pasuk to mean - that they poured the oil on the head of Aharon in order to anoint him (whereas the pouring itself was not significant).

(c) The Beraisa explains the Pasuk "ka'Shemen ha'Tov al ha'Rosh ha'Yored al ha'Zakan, Z'kan Aharon" - with reference to two drops of oil that were suspended permanently on the tip of Aharon's beard.

(d) According to Rav Papa, whenever Aharon shaved (as the Kohen Gadol was obligated to do every day) - they would move up to the roots.

(e) The significance of the Pasuk written in the same Kapitel ...

1. ... "ke'Tal Chermon" is - that just as there is no Me'ilah with regard to the dew on Mount Chermon, so too, did Moshe not need to worry that perhaps he was guilty of Me'ilah (by touching the drops of oil when he dressed Aharon, during the seven days of Milu'im).
2. ... "Hinei Mah Tov u'Mah Na'im Sheves Achim Gam Yachad" is - that Aharon did not need to worry either (that perhaps some of the oil had fallen onto other parts of his body), because just as Moshe did not commit Me'ilah, neither did he.
(a) The significance of anointing a king by a fountain is - as a Siman Tov, a hint that just as a fountain flows constantly, so too, will his rule last a long time.

(b) Shlomoh Hamelech was actually anointed by the fountain of Gichon (following the instructions of his father David).

(c) The advice Rebbi Ami gives to someone who wants to know whether he will ...

1. ... live until the end of the coming year is - to kindle a light during the Aseres Yemei Teshuvah, in a room where there is no draft, and see whether it burns until the end (a sign that he will) or whether it goes out before its time.
2... succeed in the business venture that he is about to undertake is - to rear chickens first and see how well they breed (if he has a good batch, it is a sure sign that he will).
3. ... return from the overseas trip that he about to embark upon is - to stand in a dark house and see whether a double shadow is visible (in which case he will return), or not.
(d) It is preferable though, not to make this last test - because it is possible that he will return anyway even if a double shadow is not visible. Meanwhile, the fear that he will generate upon not seeing it, will justify itself and cause his demise.
(a) The principle that Abaye learns from all this is - 'Simna Milsa Hi' (Good Simanim [and bad ones] are effective).

(b) He therefore advises eating on Rosh Hashanah pumpkin, fenugreek leek - beets and dates.

(c) Rav Masharshaya advised his sons ...

1. ... before attending the Shiur with their Rebbe - to prepare the Beraisos relevant to the Shiur.
2. ... whilst the Shiur was in progress - to look at the Rebbe's face (to conform with the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ve'hayu Einecha Ro'os es Morecha").
3. ... when they studied on their own - to study beside a river (so that they should learn without a break, just like a river flows without a break, similar to what we learned above, regarding the crowning of a king).
(d) He also taught them ...
1. ... that it was better to sit by the trash-heaps of Masa Mechsaya (where the people were Talmidei-Chachamim and well-mannered) as opposed to the palaces of Pumbedisa (where they were not).
2. ... that it is preferable to eat small, smelly fish than good strong Kutach (a sharp condiment made of moldy bread, milk and salt) that can break stones ...
(e) ... because either the latter cause Timtum ha'Leiv (a stopped-up heart [meaning a weak ability to learn]), or because it is so much more expensive.
(a) The words "Ramah Karni b'Elokai" that Chanah said in her Tefilah imply - ''Ramah Karni", ve'Lo Ranch Pachi' ...

(b) ... meaning - that the kingdom of David and Shlomoh, who were anointed with a horn (which is unbreakable) endured, whereas Shaul and Yeihu, who were anointed with an earthenware jar (which breaks easily), did not.

(a) In the Pasuk "Im ha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach Yecheta" (in connection with the Par He'elam Davar), the Torah needs to add ...
1. ... "Kohen", because had it only written "Mashi'ach", we would have thought - that it is referring to a king (and not a Kohen Gadol).
2. ... "Mashi'ach", because had it only written "Kohen", we would have thought that it is referring to a Merubeh Begadim.
(b) And had the Torah written only "Kohen Mashi'ach", we would have thought that it is referring to a Mashu'ach Milchamah, so it writes "ha'Kohen ha'Mashi'ach" - to teach us that it is in fact, referring to a Kohen Gadol Mashu'ach ...

(c) ... based on Rava, who says "ha'Yerech", 'ha'Meyumenes she'be'Yerech', meaning - that the extra 'Hey' indicates that the Torah is talking about the right thigh (since the right is considered more important than the left). Here too, we learn from the extra 'Hey' that the Torah is talking about the most important 'Mashu'ach'.

(d) The Tana suggested that "Mashi'ach" means a king, despite the fact that a king brings a Sa'ir, and not a Par - because he thought that perhaps that is confined to a case of Shigegas Ma'aseh, but in a case of He'elam Davar, he will bring a Par.

(a) We establish that the author of our Mishnah, which distinguishes between a Kohen Mashi'ach and a Merubeh Begadim with regard to a Par He'elam Davar, cannot be Rebbi Meir - because according to Rebbi Meir - a Kohen Gadol Merubeh Begadim brings a Par He'elam Davar, too.

(b) And he learns that - from the Pasuk in Vayikra "Ve'heivi *ha'Kohen* ha'Mashi'ach", which is otherwise superfluous (see Tosfos ha'Rosh).

(c) Rebbi Meir rules in a Beraisa that, when the Kohen ha'Meshamesh becomes Tahor, the Kohen she'Avar continues to perform the Avodah. According to Rebbi Yossi - he cannot serve like a Kohen Hedyot, die to the principle 'Ma'alin ba'Kodesh *ve'Lo Moridin*; neither can he serve like a Kohen Gadol, because of the Machlokes of the Kohen ha'Meshamesh.

(d) And Rebbi Yossi proves his point, by citing an incident - where Yosef ben Eikim from Tzipori (a Kohen Gadol) became Tamei and was replaced, and when he returned to his post, the Chachamim did not allow the Kohen she'Avar to serve in either capacity (as we just explained).




(a) We just established the Reisha of our Mishnah like the Rabbanan and the Seifa like Rebbi Meir - which is quite acceptable, according to Rav Chisda.

(b) When Rav Yosef establishes the entire Mishnah like Rebbi, he means - that Rebbi stated the Reisha as a S'tam Mishnah like the Rabbanan, because he holds like them (in that a Merubeh Begadim does not bring a Par ha'Ba al Kol ha'Mitzvos), and the Seifa, as a S'tam Mishnah like Rebbi Meir, because he holds like him (in that a Kohen she'Avar continues to serve as a Kohen Gadol).

(c) Rava establishes the entire Mishnah like Rebbi Shimon - on the basis of a Beraisa (that we will now proceed to discuss).

(a) Besides the eight Halachos of a Kohen Gadol discussed in our Mishnah, the Beraisa another six that pertain to him exclusively (and not to a Kohen Hedyot). In spite of the fact that he is permitted to sacrifice Korbanos even when he is an Oman - he neither receives a portion nor may he eat Kodshim.

(b) A Kohen Gadol has first choice in two matters. One of them is that he may choose to sacrifice any Korban that he pleases - the other, that he may take any portion (even of a Korban that he did not sacrifice).

(c) He wears the eight garments of a Kohen Gadol, only he may perform the Avodas Yom ha'Kipurim - and he is Patur from bringing a Korban for Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kodashav (even though it carries a Chiyuv Kareis, be'Meizid).

(a) The ...
1. ... solitary Halachah from which the Tana precludes a Merubeh Begadim is - the Par ha'Ba al Kol ha'Mitzvos (like the Rabbanan of Rebbi Meir).
2. ... two Halachos from which he precludes a Kohen she'Avar are - Par Yom ha'Kipurim and the Asiris ha'Eifah (the Minchas Chavitin), like Rebbi Meir.
(b) And he adds - that only 'Lo Porei'a ve'Lo Poreim, Ein Metamei li'Kerovim, Muzhar al ha'Besulah, Asur be'Almanah, and Machzir es ha'Rotzei'ach' out of the entire list apply to the Kohen Mashu'ach Milachmah, because they are all mentioned specifically in the Parshah (as we shall see shortly).

(c) The last Halachah ('Machzir es ha'Rotzei'ach') is the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah. The Chachamim hold - 'Eino Machzir'.

(d) Rava established this Beraisa (like he did our Mishnah, like Rebbi Shimon). Rav Papa proves this - from the Beraisa's ruling 'Patur al Tum'as Mikdash ve'Kodashav, which is the opinion of Rebbi Shimon, as we learned above.

(a) The Pasuk in Emor which forbids a Kohen Gadol to let his hair grow long, rent his clothes and render himself Tamei for a deceased relative begins "ve'ha'Kohen ha'Gadol mei'Echav Asher Yutzak al Rosho Shemen ha'Mishchah, u'Milei es Yado Li'lebosh es ha'Begadim". which the Tana of the Beraisa explains - comes to include the Mashu'ach Milchamah and the Merubeh Begadim.

(b) And the Tana learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ki Neizer Shemen Mishchas Elokav *Alav*" - "Alav", 've'Lo al Chaveiro', to preclude a Merubeh Begadim from the Halachah permitting a Kohen Gadol to serve even when he is an Onan.
2. ... "*ve'Hu* Ishah bi'Vesulehah Yikach" - that on the other hand, he is included in the obligation to marry a Besulah.
(c) This is the opinion of Rebbi Yishmael. According to Rebbi Akiva, "ve'Hu" comes to include - even a Kohen Gadol who had to stand down because of a permanent blemish (which, unlike Tum'ah, which is only temporary) is permanent.
(a) Rava asked Rav Nachman whether a Kohen Gadol who contacts Tzara'as is permitted to marry an Almanah or not - whether he is precluded completely from marrying an Almanah ('Midcha Dachi'), or merely Patur as long as long as he is eligible to serve ('Miftar Patur').

(b) Rav Nachman did not know the answer. Rav Huna his son, however, resolved the She'eilah from - Rebbi Akiva in the previous Beraisa, who included a Kohen with a permanent blemish in the obligation to marry a Besulah (and a Kohen Gadol with Tzara'as is no different).

(c) When Rav Papa heard that from him - he was so thrilled that he kissed him on his head and gave him his daughter's hand in marriage.

(a) We already learned earlier that when a close relative dies, a Kohen Gadol performs neither P'ri'ah nor P'rimah, and that he sacrifices Korbanos as usual. Our Mishnah qualifies the Din of 'Eino Porem' - by requiring the Kohen Gadol to perform P'rimah, too, only whereas a Kohen Hedyot tears at the top of the garment, the he tears at the bottom.

(b) Rav and Shmuel both take 'Lema'alah' in our Mishnah (of a Kohen Gadol's P'rimah) literally. Rav explains 'Lematah' literally, too. According to Shmuel however - it means below the top rim (leaving the rim itself intact).

(c) The Beraisa - requires a total tear for parents, but makes do with a partial tear (like Shmuel) for other relatives.

(d) That presents Shmuel with a problem - because if that is considered a tear for some, how can Shmuel permit a Kohen Gadol to do it?

(a) To solve the problem, we establish Shmuel like Rebbi Yehudah, who rules - that any tear that does not totally divide the two sections of the garment is useless.

(b) In another Beraisa, Rebbi Yehudah discusses the Pasuk in Emor "es Rosho Lo Yifra, u'Vegadav Lo Yifrom". When he says that if the Pasuk had said 'Rosh' and 'Beged', he would have interpreted it to mean that of a Sotah, he means - that the Kohen Gadol would have been precluded from uncovering the hair and tearing the clothes of a Sotah.

(c) But now that it says "Rosho" and "Begadav", he concludes - it means that a Kohen Gadol does may not let his hair grow long or tear his clothes (at all [even as a sign of mourning]).

(d) Rebbi Yishmael holds - that a Kohen Gadol tears his garment at the bottom (like our Mishnah).

(e) We reconcile Shmuel with Rebbi Yehudah - (in spite of the fact that he [Shmuel] holds that a Kohen Gadol is obligated to perform K'ri'ah) - inasmuch as he may not hold like Rebbi Yehudah regarding this Halachah, he does however, hold like him with regard to the location of a K'ri'ah.

(a) Our Mishnah rules that ...
1. ... whatever is more common or more holy than 'its friend' - takes precedence over it.
2. ... a case where a Par Mashi'ach and a Par ha'Eidah are both waiting to be sacrificed - then the former takes precedence.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... in Pinchas "Mil'vad Olas ha'Boker *Asher le'Olas ha'Tamid*", says Abaye - that whatever is more common takes precedence.
2. ... in Emor "Ve'kidashto", says Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael - that whatever is more holy takes precedence.
(c) One must give a Kohen precedence - when reading the Torah, when Bensching and to take first when eating.
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