POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Kesuvos 8
KESUVOS 6-9 - have been anonymously dedicated by a unique Ohev Torah and
Marbitz Torah living in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.
1) THE NUPTIAL BLESSINGS
(a) (Rav Yehudah): The blessings are:
2) WHEN WE MAKE BIRKAS CHASANIM
1. "... that everything he created for his honor".
(b) Levi came to Rebbi's house at the wedding of R. Shimon,
Rebbi's son; he blessed 5 of these blessings.
2. "... who forms man".
3. "... that formed man in his image ... Blessed are
you, Hashem, that forms man."
4. "Rejoice and make rejoice ... Blessed are you,
Hashem, who gladdens Tziyon with her children."
5. "Be happy, loving friends ... Blessed are you,
Hashem, who gladdens Chasan and Kalah."
6. "Blessed are you, ... who created happiness ...
Blessed are you, Hashem, who makes the Chasan
rejoice with the Kalah."
(c) Rav Asi came to Rav Ashi's house at the wedding of his
son Mar; he blessed all 6 blessings.
(d) Suggestion: Levi omitted the 2nd blessing because he
holds that there was one formation of man; Rav Asi said
the 2nd blessing, because he holds that there were 2
formations of man.
(e) Rejection: Both agree that there was only 1 formation;
Rav Asi makes 2 blessings on the formation of man, since
that was Hashem's intent; Levi says that we follow the
actual formation, which was only one.
1. Question (Rav Yehudah): It says "Hashem created man
in his image"; it later says, "He created them male
2. Answer: He intended to create them as 2; in deed, he
(a) Rav Ashi came to Rav Kahana's house. The 1st day he made
all the blessings.
3) THE BLESSING OF MOURNERS
(b) After the 1st day, if there were new faces, he made all
the blessings; if not, he only blessed "that joy is in
His dwelling", and "that created joy ...".
(c) From 7 days after the wedding until 30, whether the
guests were invited because of the wedding or not, he
blessed "that joy is in his dwelling".
(d) After 30 days, if the guests were invited because of the
wedding, he blessed "that joy is in his dwelling"; if
(e) Question: For how long does one say this, when the guests
were invited because of the wedding?
(f) Answer (Rav Papi): For 12 months.
(g) Question: From when does one start saying the blessing?
(h) Answer (Rav Papa): From when he soaks the barley to make
beer. (Some explain: from when he soaks barley, as a sign
that the couple should be fruitful.)
(i) Question: But Rav Papa arranged a match for his son, and
blessed from the time of the engagement!
(j) Answer: Rav Papa is an exception - he had all needs of
the Chupah ready.
(k) Ravina arranged a match for his son into the family of
Rav Chaviva, and blessed from the time of the engagement.
1. He did so because he was sure they would not
retract; in the end, they retracted.
(l) Rav Tachlifa went to Bavel, and blessed 6 long blessings
(i.e. he lengthened the first two and closed them with
Blessed are you, Hashem, ... ); the law is not like this.
(m) Rav Chaviva went to a meal celebrating a Bris. He blessed
"that joy is in his dwelling"; the law is not like this,
because people are disturbed that the baby is in pain.
(a) (Rav): The Chasan is counted among (the 10) needed to say
Birkas Chasanim; mourners are not counted among the
number needed to say Birkas Avelim.
(b) Question (Beraisa): Chasanim and mourners are counted
towards the required number.
(c) Answer: Rav is a Tana; he may argue on a Beraisa.
(d) (R. Yochanan): Chasanim are counted towards the required
number, but not mourners.
(e) Question (Beraisa): Chasanim and mourners are counted
towards the required number.
(f) Answer: The Beraisa deals with blessing over a meal; R.
Yochanan's law applies to the line of consolers.
4) THE CONSOLATION OF REISH LAKISH
(g) Question: But R. Yochanan said that we bless Birkas
Chasanim with 10, and Chasanim count towards the 10; we
bless Birkas Avelim with 10, and mourners do not count
towards the 10.
1. Is there really a blessing in the line of consolers?
(h) Retraction: R. Yochanan's law applies to the street
(where we give the mourner his first meal).
(i) Question: But R. Yochanan said that we bless Birkas
Chasanim with 10 all 7 days, and Chasanim count towards
the 10; we bless Birkas Avelim with 10 all 7 days, and
mourners do not count towards the 10.
1. Do we really bless in the street all 7 days?
(j) Answer: Yes, when new consolers come.
(a) R. Chiya Bar Aba taught the children of Reish Lakish; one
of them died. He did not go the 1st day to console him,
but did go the 2nd day. He told Yehudah Bar Nachmani to
say words of consolation.
5) THE CUPS OF CONSOLATION
(b) Yehudah: "From the anger of his children" - when the
parents sin, Hashem is angry at the children, and they
die in childhood.
(c) Some say that an older child died. Yehudah: "Hashem will
not rejoice on his youths ... "
1. (Rav Chanan Bar Rav): " ... His hand is still
stretched" - all know why a bride enters the Chupah,
but one who fouls his mouth by saying something
obscene, even if 70 good years had been decreed for
him, they are changed for evil.
(d) Question: This is not consolation, these words provoke
(e) Answer: Thusly he was saying: you (Reish Lakish) are
worthy to bear the punishments fitting to come on the
(f) R. Chiya Bar Aba: Speak in the praise of Hash-m.
(g) Yehudah: "The great G-d ... Blessed are you, Hashem, who
revives the dead."
(h) R. Chiya Bar Aba: Speak to the mourners.
(i) Yehudah: Our afflicted brothers, put your hearts to
investigate this ... many drank (the cup of afflictions),
many will drink; the drinking of the later ones will
resemble the drinking of the first ones ... Blessed is He
who consoles mourners.
1. (Abaye): One should say 'many drank', but not 'many
will drink'; one should say 'the drinking of the
first ones', but not 'the drinking of the later
(j) R. Chiya Bar Aba: Speak in praise of the consolers.
2. (Reish Lakish): A person should not open to the
Satan (say that he is fitting to be punished).
3. (Rav Yosef): He learns this from "We were as Sodom";
the reply was, "Hear the word of Hash-m, officers of
(k) Yehudah: Our brothers, bestowers of Chesed, children of
bestowers of Chesed ... Blessed are you, Hashem, who pays
(l) R. Chiya Bar Aba: Speak on behalf of all of Yisrael.
(m) Yehudah: Master of the worlds, redeem and save your
nation Yisrael from pestilence, sword, ... Blessed are
you, Hashem, who stops the plague.
(a) (Ula): It was enacted that the mourner drink 10 cups of
wine: 3 before the meal, to open his intestines (to help
him to eat); 3 during the meal, to digest the food; and 4
after the meal, corresponding to the 4 blessings after a
(b) They added 4 more cups, corresponding to community
servants, leaders of the city (both of these used to
assist in burials), the Beis ha'Mikdash, and R. Gamliel.
(c) This led to drunkenness, so they returned to the original
status quo (10 cups).
1. Question: Why was a blessing enacted corresponding
to R. Gamliel?
2. Answer (Beraisa): It used to be, the expense of
burial pained the mourners more than the loss
(because all used to buy expensive shrouds).
Mourners would abandon the deceased and flee! R.
Gamliel buried his deceased in simple linen shrouds,
and everyone followed his example.
3. Rav Papa: Today the custom is to make shrouds of
hemp, which cost only a Zuz.